This report aims to present two proposals on countries’ differentiation for further discussion. During COP21, equity has garnered increasing attention from various parties. During the current negotiation, countries could present detailed explanation on the equity of their proposed INDCs, including elaboration on the correspondence between national circumstances and their commitment to emission reduction. Building on the existing research of others and Greenovation Hub’s understanding of climate equity, this paper also presents two classification proposals for further discussion.
How to avoid and solve social-environmental conflicts in international project financing has been a main concern of international bilateral and multilateral financing institutes, governments, investors, local communities and NGOs. Compliance Advisor Ombudsman (CAO) is an independent accountability institution. This handbook was compiled by Greennovation Hub, aiming to help the public to learn more regarding the functions, complaint process, dispute settlement cases, and other relevant mechanisms of CAO.
This study presents seven case studies of Chinese bank financing for overseas investments and analyzes these transactions to determine the extent to which banks have implemented Article 21 of the Green Credit Guidelines, China’s innovative sustainable finance policy. Evidence suggests that widespread problems in bank compliance with Article 21 of the GCG exist. The case studies indicate that Chinese banks lack transparency and sufficient methods of engaging with the public, practices which reduce their access to beneficial information and input that could improve their GCG compliance, and the report concludes with several recommendations, including one that Chinese embassies abroad take a proactive role to ensure compliance with Article 21 of the GCG.
Land constitutes 29% of the earth’s surface and nearly 13% of it is protected, while high seas account for 43% of the earth’s surface and less than 1% of them are fully protected. As the marine environment has been rapidly deteriorating in recent years, we call for in this report the establishment of the world’s largest marine protected area (MPA) in the Antarctic Ocean, which makes up 10% of the ocean in our living planet and is the world’s last pristine wilderness. The report depicts the productive yet fragile ecosystem in the Antarctic Ocean and potential threats to it arising from climate change and commercial fishing. The report elaborates on the function of Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resource (CCAMLR), its precautionary approach of management and the progress of marine conservation in the Antarctic Ocean. It documents the development of the international dialogue pertaining to Ross Sea and East Antarctic MPA proposals among 25 members of CCAMLR and makes responses from NGO’s perspective to the main concerns of the countries that are not in support of the proposals.