Issue 16 | Blue Pulse: Marine Conservation Bulletin

日期:

The returning of mutual trust and good faith in global governance is in need. Comparing with the slow progress in the negotiation for MPAs in the Southern Ocean, science and policy researches relating to the conservation of Southern Ocean have been fruitful this year.

导语 Introduction

关键点1:

南极海洋生物资源养护委员会(CCAMLR)落幕,令人担忧的不仅是海洋保护区提案的再次搁置,还有委员会大多数国家和俄罗斯在一个疑似非法捕鱼事件上的尖锐对立。这体现出全球海洋的保护急需全球治理中互信与善意的回归。

Highlight1:

The annual meeting of the Commission for the Conservation of Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) closed in last week. What is concerning is not only the delayed progress of Marine Protected Area, but also the confrontation between Russia and the rest of the commission regarding one IUU case. This reflects the need for the returning of mutual trust and good faith in global governance.

关键点2:

相比于南极海洋保护区谈判的缓慢进展,今年南极海洋保护相关的科学和制度研究成果不断。本刊前几期已经收录了大量的相关论文,本期中又有新的研究和观点登场。其中Meyer博士等发表在《自然》杂志的关于磷虾种群的论文提交给了本次CCAMLR年会。还有一篇讨论BBNJ和南极条约体系的论文也很有意思。

Highlight2:

Comparing with the slow progress in the negotiation for MPAs in the Southern Ocean, science and policy researches relating to the conservation of Southern Ocean have been fruitful this year. There have been an extensive collections of relevant papers in our previous issues, more new research and perspectives are put in this issue. Among which the article Dr. Meyer et. al published on Nature has also been submit to CCAMLR. The paper discussing the interplay between BBNJ and the Antarctic Treaty System is also interesting.


时讯 News

图片
德国科考船  极星号  周一提前返回港口城市 | Bremerhaven Annika Meyer 摄

(1)南极海洋生物资源养护委员会2020年度年会(线上会议)闭幕,多项重要议题被搁置。

The 2020 annual meeting of the Commission for the Conservation of Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) closed at 20:00 UTC last Friday. Many important items have been deferred to 2021.

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(2)德国科考船 "Polarstern "号在完成了一次非凡的北冰洋考察后,已驶回母港。这艘船在极地北部停留了一年,目的是研究北极的气候以及它是如何变化的。

The German Research Vessel Polarstern has sailed back into its home port after completing a remarkable expedition to the Arctic Ocean. The ship spent a year in the polar north, studying the Arctic climate and how it is changing.

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(3)最近的变暖趋势和历史卫星图像(Landsat)显示:自2013年以来南极洲罗斯海伊里扎尔角的积雪覆盖率不断下降。2016年1月,几处被遗弃的阿德利企鹅聚集地和大量的裸露地表的动物遗迹被发现,看似近期实则古老的企鹅骨头、羽毛和尸体在融化的积雪中显露,取样进行放射性碳分析后,证明其至少可以被追溯到7000年前。

Recent warming trends and historical satellite imagery (Landsat) show decreasing snow cover on Cape Irizar, Ross Sea, Antarctica since 2013. In January 2016, several abandoned Adélie penguin sites and abundant surface remains of penguin bones, feathers, and carcasses that appeared to be fresh were being exposed by melting snow and were sampled for radiocarbon analysis. 

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(4)来自香港大学的科研工作者成立了野生动植物保护法医学实验室,该实验室的研究人员开发了一种新型基因监测技术,可以通过从菜市场的排水管采集少量水样来识别许多物种。它可以帮助管理部门发现濒危海洋物种的交易,辅助监控日益猖獗的濒危鱼类交易。

Researchers from the University of Hong Kong, who have set up the Wildlife Conservation Forensics Laboratory, have developed a new genetic monitoring technology that can identify many species by collecting small water samples from vegetable market drains. It could help regulators spot and monitor the rampant trade in endangered marine species.

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(5)联合国生物多样性峰会尝试重启遇阻谈判,试图让各国政府重新聚焦全球生态危机,但效果欠佳。

UN summit tries to kick start stalled COP15 biodiversity talks. The online summit tried to refocus governments on the world’s ecological crisis, but little progress was made.

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(6)疫情导致全球海产品销量大增。由于COVID-19的逡巡不去和因此导致的就餐限制,更多消费者选择在家中烹饪。美国一家连锁超市报告称,三文鱼和虾的需求量增加了40%,而雪蟹的销量则翻了一番。

Pandemic has resulted in huge boost to seafood sales worldwide. Grocery retailers around the world have realized a significant increase in seafood sales as consumers are cooking at home more due to COVID-19 shelter-in-place and dining restrictions.

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观点 Perspectives

图片
南极半岛探索之旅 | One Ocean Expeditions 制

(1)Carolyn J. Hogg等:“我们应该趁早保护南极半岛。禁止在变暖的沿海水域捕鱼,限制旅游业和陆地上的建筑,此举将有助于保护海洋哺乳动物和海鸟。”

Carolyn J. Hogg et al. :" Protect the Antarctic Peninsula before it’s too late. Banning fishing in warming coastal waters and limiting tourism and construction on land will help to protect marine mammals and seabirds."

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(2)Bettina Meyer等:“基于生态系统的高效南极磷虾管理应解决磷虾种群维护、行为分析和生态适应等方面的不确定性。”

Bettina Meyer et al. :" Successful ecosystem-based management of Antarctic krill should address uncertainties in krill recruitment, behavior and ecological adaptation."

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(3)Rashid Sumaila等:“随着气候变化的影响,结束过度捕捞可以保护我们海洋的健康。”

Rashid Sumaila et al. :" As climate change begins to bite, ending overfishing will safeguard our oceans’ health."

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(4)IISD:“在首届 ‘海洋管理年度审查’期间,CEO们讨论了建立健康和富有成效的海洋的五个‘临界点’。这五个基于海洋的解决方案可以支持可持续发展目标与疫情后的经济恢复:完全可追溯的可持续海产品;低碳化航运;利用海洋电力;绘制海洋地图;以及杜绝废物进入海洋。”

IISD:" During the inaugural Ocean Stewardship Annual Review, CEOs addressed five 'tipping points' for a healthy and productive ocean. Five ocean-based solutions can support SDGs, pandemic recovery: fully traceable sustainable seafood; decarbonized shipping; harnessing ocean electricity; mapping the ocean; and ending waste entering the ocean."

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(5)MPA NEWS:“碳抵消已经是现有各种碳交易计划的一部分,并将被纳入《巴黎协定》应对气候变化的方法中。在海洋保护区的背景下,它们代表了一种新的融资方法,也是一种为了鼓励生态系统良性发展而采取的货币化的奖励方式。“

MPA NEWS:" Carbon offsets are already part of various existing carbon-trading schemes, and will be included as part of the Paris Agreement’s approach to combating climate change. In the context of MPAs, they represent a novel approach to financing, and a way to monetize sites in a manner that rewards making ecosystems healthier and more productive."

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(6)皮尤慈善信托基金:“由于欧盟和英国尚未就未来的渔业框架达成协议,目前还不清楚双方共享的种群将如何管理。然而,欧盟和英国领导人如果要履行其国际义务和公开声明的承诺,就必须在结束过度捕捞方面取得更多进展。尽管存在很多不确定性,但实现可持续渔业是欧盟和英国领导人必须面对的事情。”

The Pew Charitable Trusts:" Because the European Union (EU) and the United Kingdom (UK) have not yet reached an agreement on a future fisheries framework, it is unclear how the stocks shared between the two parties will be managed. It is clear, however, that EU and UK leaders need to do more to make progress on ending overfishing if they are going to deliver on their international obligations and publicly stated commitments to do so. Despite uncertainties, EU and UK leaders must achieve sustainable fisheries."

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学术 Academics

(1)【气候·海洋】人为变暖导致的南极冰原融化的未来气候响应

[Climate·Ocean] Future climate response to Antarctic Ice Sheet melt caused by anthropogenic warming

南极冰原融雪可能对未来的全球气候产生重要影响。在此,我们报告了在未来温室气体排放情景IPCC RCP4.5和RCP8.5下,使用耦合数值模型进行的多世纪(目前-2250年)气候模拟,融水和冰的排放基于冰原的动态热动力学模型。与忽略排放的模型相比,排放会导致冰缘的次表层海洋温度提高1℃以上。与此相反,扩大的海冰和南大洋降温2~10°C的表层空气和表层海洋,将减缓到2250年全球人为因素变暖的速度。此外,北极冬季海冰的损失和大西洋经线翻转环流的减弱也被延后了几十年。研究结果表明,需要更准确地计算冰层的融水输入量,以便作出更准确的气候预测。

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(2)【气候·海洋】气候内部变率在预测南极洲对未来海平面上升的贡献方面的作用

[Climate·Ocean] The role of internal climate variability in projecting Antarctica’s contribution to future sea-level rise

研究表明,考虑气候系统内部固有的气候变率(ICV)时,2100年南极冰盖(AIS)对未来海平面上升(SLR)的影响,与不考虑时的0.38-0.45米,有0.08米的差异。这项研究突出表明,在评估海平面上升预测中与AIS作用有关的不确定性时,需要考虑到气候内部变率。

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(3)【生物多样性】未来气候下太平洋北极地区海洋生物多样性的多面性

[Biodiversity] Multiple facets of marine biodiversity in the Pacific Arctic under future climate

气候变暖和海冰流失将使太平洋北极地区的海洋生物群落发生剧烈变化。北极社区的强烈北方化将成为未来生物多样性重新分配的一大特点。寒带类群向温暖和无海冰的北极地区迁移,也推动了未来群落变化。寒带化可能会改变北极生态系统的特性,使其变得更加脆弱。

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(4)【划区管理】连通性组合效应可稳定海洋保护区的业绩

[Area-based management] A connectivity portfolio effect stabilizes marine reserve performance

本研究测量了一种被高度开发的珊瑚石斑鱼的幼虫扩散模式,并量化了大堡礁禁捕海洋保护区网络对捕捞量供应的时间波动。尽管单个保护区的供应是非常不稳定的,但保护区网络产生了一种连通性组合效应,成功地抑制了对附近珊瑚礁的幼虫供应的波动。研究表明,有效的储备网络可以产生以前未被认识到的稳定效益,确保持续补充被开发的鱼类种群。

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(5)【划区管理】南大洋海洋保护区:南极条约体系是否可以与联合国关于国家管辖范围以外区域的新文书共存?

[Area-based management] Marine protected areas in the Southern Ocean: Is the Antarctic Treaty System ready to co-exist with a new United Nations instrument for areas beyond national jurisdiction?

联合国关于国家管辖范围以外区域生物多样性的,具有法律约束力的国际文书(UN ILBI)将与关于海洋保护区的南极条约体系(ATS)相互协同。UN ILBI进一步补充和支持了南大洋的海洋保护。根据ATS指定海洋保护区的现状,其治理系统日益分散。南极条约协商国和南极海洋生物资源养护委员会成员应采取积极主动的步骤,协调整个ATS的海洋保护举措。ATS与ILBI进程的衔接对于确保未来的互动是机会,而不是冲突至关重要。

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(6)【划区管理】二十一世纪的划区保护

[Area-based management] Area-based conservation in the twenty-first century

研究展示了各国政府自2010年以来扩大保护区的做法,在增加生物多样性(生态区、12,056个受威胁物种、"关键生物多样性区 "和荒野区)和生态系统服务(生产性渔业、陆地和海洋的碳服务)等不同要素的覆盖面方面取得了一定的成果。为了在2020年后取得更大成功,基于区域保护必须更有效地促进实现全球生物多样性目标——从防止灭绝到保留最完整的生态系统,且必须与许多土著居民、社区团体和个人更好地合作。区域养护的长期成功需要《生物多样性公约》缔约方确保提供足够的资金,为气候变化做好准备,并使生物多样性养护成为土地、水和海洋管理政策中更有力的一部分。

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其他资料 Other Resources

【海上能源】2030年海洋能远景行业未来部署、成本及供应链分析
[Offshore energy] 2030 Ocean Energy Vision Industry analysis of future deployments, costs and supply chains
报告/Report


【蓝色碳汇】海洋绿洲、蓝色碳汇:殊为珍贵的海草床
[Blue carbon] Seagrass meadows: oases of life
科普/Popularization of science


【海洋污染】企业呼吁对塑料污染进行无害化处理
[Marine pollution] The business call for an untreated on-plastic pollution
报告/Report


【海洋污染】打破塑料浪潮:防止塑料污染的首要发现
[Marine pollution] Breaking the Plastic Wave: Top Findings for Preventing Plastic Pollution
报告/Report


【海洋宏观】世界海洋电台 | 新常态
[Ocean in general] World Ocean Radio | A New Normal
广播/Radio


【海洋保护】《保护南极海》系列:
第一集:中国的海洋保护意识;
第二集:中国的南极海保护记;
第三集:“潜”心 发力 – 运动外交能改变南极海吗?
音频/Audio


活动 Events

>>预告 Announcements

2020年12月01日 网络研讨会 革命性地利用海洋数据来缓解气候变化、过度捕捞和污染问题
2020.12.01 Webinar Revolutionizing ocean data to mitigate climate change, overfishing, and pollution
详情/Detail


2020年12月08日 网络研讨会 为海洋保护区开发金融可持续性评估工具
2020.12.08 Webinar Developing a financial sustainability assessment tool for Marine Protected Areas
详情/Detail


2021年02月09日 网络研讨会 制定一项监测和评估海洋垃圾的国家计划:吸取的经验教训
2021.02.09 Webinar Building a State Plan to Monitor and Assess Marine Litter: Lessons Learned
详情/Detail


>>回顾 Recordings

2020年10月14日 网络研讨会 连接我们的蓝色星球:建立生态连接的海洋保护区网络
2020.10.14 Webinar Connecting Our Blue Planet: Building Ecologically Connected Marine Protected Area Networks
详情/Detail


2020年10月20日 网络研讨会 清洁洋流联盟:全球合作解决复杂的塑料问题的办法
2020.10.20 Webinar The Clean Currents Coalition: A global collaborative solution to the complex plastics problem
详情/Detail


>>其他 Others

本简报两周更新一期,往期内容可以查看这里。 如果您在简报内容或形式上有任何意见或建议,欢迎发邮件至ocean@ghub.org告诉我们,也欢迎您将《蓝色脉搏》推荐给同事和朋友

我们正在跟踪新冠疫情导致的海洋相关国际会议安排的变动,最新的信息在这里


题图:香港南区的香港仔鱼市场,Bob Henry / Alamy | 摄。