Issue 15 | Blue Pulse: Marine Conservation Bulletin

日期:

The statements by national leaders at the UN Biodiversity Summit are an important “stocktaking of political will” in the lead-up to next year’s 15th Conference of the Parties (COP15) to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).

导语 Introduction

Highlight1:

The School of Oceanography, Shanghai Jiaotong University released a report on China's marine conservation sector on October 11. It created the concept of "marine conservation sector" as a cross-industry, cross-sector and cross-disciplinary concept. This is exactly the picture presented in this issue of Blue Pulse. From the political will of national leaders to the political and technical negotiations of international organizations, from state-led conservation actions to the new tools pioneered by the civil society, marine conservation needs a global and local perspective, as well as the participation of the whole society and the positive interaction of different stakeholders.


Highlighte2:

The statements by national leaders at the UN Biodiversity Summit are an important "stocktaking of political will" in the lead-up to next year's 15th Conference of the Parties (COP15) to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Just as the Paris Climate Agreement was preceded by a climate summit in New York to boost political momentum. China's announcement at this year's UN General Assembly of its 2060 "carbon neutral" target and its solemn commitment to the CBD process in its statement at the Biodiversity Summit have sent very positive signals. It remains to be seen how much momentum can be harvested from the summit in the negotiations on the High Seas Biodiversity Agreement and the Antarctic Marine Protected Areas.


时讯 News

图片
取消有害渔业补贴 | Duangphorn Wiriya on Unsplash 摄

(1)世贸组织成员在9月份的一组会议期间,在解决有害渔业补贴的文本谈判方面取得了进展。成员们讨论了是否以及如何禁止补贴在本国水域外,或区域渔业管理组织监管水域外的捕捞活动,以解决能力过剩和过度捕捞问题。

WTO members made progress on text negotiations to address harmful fisheries subsidies during the September cluster of meetings. Members discussed whether and how to ban subsidies for fishing outside one’s waters or beyond waters regulated by Regional Fisheries Management Organizations, to address overcapacity and overfishing.

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(2)《生物多样性公约》缔约方第十五届会议最终决定中所表现出的携手共创未来的美好愿景,将取决于发达国家对最贫困国家实施必要转型的资金支持。生物多样性与其他可持续发展目标的联系正越来越多地出现在高级别政治议程上。此外,五十多个国家呼吁在《生物多样性公约》谈判中应该更加妥善地处理海洋问题。

The collective ambition expressed in the final decision of the fifteenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity will depend on the commitment of developed countries to support the availability of financial resources to support the poorest countries in implementing the necessary transition. The linkages between biodiversity and other aspects of sustainable development are increasingly appearing on the high-level political agenda. In addition, some 50 countries have called for better treatment of oceans issues in the negotiations of the Convention on Biological Diversity.

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(3)中科院海洋所发布该所命名的5个深海生物新物种,分别是海洋所紫柳珊瑚(新种)、海洋所镖毛鳞虫(新种)、海洋所三歧海牛(新种)、海洋所异胸虾(新种)、海洋所长茎海绵(新种)。

The five new species of deep-sea organisms named by the Institute of Oceanography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, are the Victorgorgia iocasica sp. nov., Laetmonice iocasica sp. nov., Tritonia iocasica sp. nov., Sternostylus iocasicus sp. nov., Caulophacus iocasicus sp. nov.

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(4)2020年8月,伯利兹政府制定了两项海洋保护计划:将萨波迪拉凯斯海洋保护区扩大到原来的7倍,并计划在2022年前逐步淘汰刺网捕鱼。海洋保护区的扩张帮助伯利兹实现其国际承诺,即生物多样性公约的爱知目标11,呼吁到2020年各国至少使10%的沿海和海洋区域,通过有效和公平管理手段得到保护。为了遏制并根除刺网捕鱼,伯利兹政府将帮助渔民再就业,从传统渔业过渡到更生态友好的产业和工作。

In August 2020, the Belizean government enacted two conservation efforts — the expansion of the Sapodilla Cayes Marine Reserve to be seven times its original size, and a plan to phase out gillnet fishing by 2022. The marine reserve expansion has helped Belize meet its international commitment to the Convention on Biological Diversity’s Aichi Target 11, which calls for nations to protect at least 10% of their marine environments by 2020. In order to bring gillnet fishing to an end, the Belizean government will help fishers transition to more sustainable livelihoods.

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(5)9月28日,来自64个国家的国家元首签署了一份《领导人对自然的承诺》,承诺共同努力,让土地、海洋和陆地水域等生态系统走上可持续发展的道路,并强调了将要采取的10项紧急行动,其中包括“杜绝塑料流入海洋2050计划“。

Sept. 28, heads of state from 64 countries signed a Leaders’ Pledge for Nature, committing to work together to put ecosystems—land, ocean, and freshwater—on a path toward sustainability and highlighting 10 urgent actions to be taken, which included 'eliminating plastic leakage to the ocean by 2050'.

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(6)皮尤慈善信托基金的一个新的交互工具可以帮助海洋和渔业当局以及海产品购买者确定全球非法捕捞的海产品最有可能从哪里进入市场。非法、未报告和无管制(IUU)捕捞每年的渔获物价值高达235亿美元,导致有商业价值的鱼种被持续性的过度捕捞,并可能抢走那些遵守法律法规的国家,企业和个人的工作机会和利益。

A new interactive tool from The Pew Charitable Trusts can help maritime and fisheries authorities and seafood buyers determine where in the world illegally-caught seafood is most likely to enter the market. Illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing accounts for up to $23.5 billion worth of catch annually, causing continued overfishing of commercially valuable species and taking away jobs, food, and revenue from the people, companies, and countries obeying the law.

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观点 Perspectives

图片
渔船在每年的休渔期闲置在福建港口 | China Dialogue,Jiang Yifan 摄

(1)于亚妮 :“巨额燃油补贴加速了中国近海渔业资源的枯竭,在WTO渔业补贴谈判背景下,它的终结不再遥遥无期,这也意味着中国近海渔民正被迫面临转型。转型方向包括休闲渔业、养殖业,当地政府也通过打造特色旅游项目帮助引导渔民转型。未转型渔民面临渔业资源利用永续改革试行。”

Yu Yani:" Huge fuel subsidies have accelerated the depletion of China's near shore fishery resources, and their end is no longer out of sight in the context of WTO fisheries subsidy negotiations, which means that Chinese near shore fishermen are being forced to transform their operations. Transformation include recreational fishing and aquaculture, and local governments have also created tourism specialties to help guide fishermen through the transition. Fishermen who have not yet made the transition face a trial run of sustainable reform of their fishery resources use."

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(2)Gordon Feller:“SmartCatch公司旨在解决过度捕捞和鱼类供应枯竭的问题。在初始阶段,该公司专注于提高大规模渔业的分析能力。SmartCatch正在为渔业提供实时分析和集成的企业资源规划系统物联网解决方案,以改善数据管理。”

Gordon Feller:" SmartCatch aims to address overfishing and depleting fish supplies. For the initial phase, the company is focusing on improving analytics in the large-scale fishing industry. SmartCatch is offering real-time analytics and an integrated ERP internet of things solution for fisheries to improve data management."

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(3)Erich Hoyt:“四年来,世界自然保护联盟的工作组致力于对一种或多种海洋哺乳动物物种均具有重要意义的区域进行管理,即重要海洋哺乳动物区(IMMAs)。2020年8月,工作组结束了第六次区域研讨会,该研讨会涵盖澳大利亚、新西兰和东南印度洋。45个候选IMMAs中,经过独立审查,目前已有31个被批准为澳大利亚和新西兰常驻物种的IMMAs。”

Erich Hoyt:" An IUCN working group has been working for four years on area-based management of areas of significance for one or more marine mammal species, known as Important Marine Mammal Areas (IMMAs). In August 2020, the working group concluded its sixth regional workshop, which covered Australia, New Zealand and the Southeast Indian Ocean. Of the 45 candidate IMMAs, after an independent review. There are currently 31 IMMAs approved as resident species in Australia and New Zealand."

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(4)Chris Chase:“美国西海岸的太平洋沙丁鱼渔场已正式获得太平洋渔业管理委员会颁发的(PFMC)的重建资质,渔民对此举表示赞赏,然而环保组织Oceana则谴责其‘不作为’,认为该举会加速渔业崩溃。”

Chris Chase:" The Pacific sardine fishery on the U.S. West Coast has officially been given a rebuilding plan by the Pacific Fishery Management Council (PFMC), a move that fishermen applauded and environmental organization Oceana has decried as a 'failure to act'."

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(5)Jason Holland:“如果允许英国和欧盟在今年年底分道扬镳,而不在‘脱欧’后达成渔业协议,将为过度捕捞打开大门,并对许多鱼类种群和海洋生态系统构成严重风险。9月8日,欧盟和英国开始了新一轮的‘脱欧’后贸易协议谈判,预计渔业和捕鱼权将再次成为中心议题,成为达成更广泛协议的主要挑战之一。”

Jason Holland:" Allowing the United Kingdom and the European Union to part ways at the end of this year without an agreement on fisheries in place post-Brexit would open the door to overfishing and pose a serious risk to many fish stocks and marine ecosystems. On 8 September, the E.U. and U.K. began a new round of post-Brexit trade deal negotiations, with fisheries and fishing rights again expected to take center stage as one of the main obstacles to a broader deal."

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(6)生态标签计划警告说,由于东北大西洋沿岸国家之间缺乏关于渔获量管理的国际协议,使得四座亚特兰蒂斯-斯堪的纳维亚鲱鱼渔场 "很有可能 "在12月30日失去其海洋管理委员会(MSC)证书。

A lack of international agreement between Northeast Atlantic coastal states on the management of catch levels have left four Atlanto-Scandian herring fisheries with “a high risk” of losing their Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) certificates on 30 December, the eco-label program has warned.

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学术 Academics

(1)【海洋·生境】变化中的南极磷虾的环极分布和等值线图:印度洋-太平洋生境保护区抵御大西洋区域的长期退化

[Ocean·Ecosystem] Changing circumpolar distributions and isoscapes of Antarctic krill: Indo‐Pacific habitat refuges counter long‐term degradation of the Atlantic sector

在环绕着南极洲大陆的几片海域和区域中,气候变暖失去海冰的大西洋-贝林斯豪森区的磷虾密度下降;罗斯-太平洋区的磷虾密度可能增加了,该区的气候趋势与此相反;而较稳定的拉扎列夫-印度区的磷虾密度没有显著变化。研究认为,印度洋-太平洋地区成为了环极磷虾种群的避难所,然而大西洋地区的磷虾生存条件迅速恶化。

阅读/Read


(2)【海洋·生物】海洋变暖和幼虫运输驱动的底栖物种错向洄游

[Ocean·Biology] Wrong-way migrations of benthic species driven by ocean warming and larval transport

气候变暖促使一些海洋物种向极地或深水区迁移。然而在西北大西洋大陆架上,许多底栖无脊椎动物的活动范围反而向南转移,进入更浅更暖的水域。全球变暖引起了产卵时间和幼虫漂流迁移的变化,研究测试了这些 "错误方向 "的迁移是否与此相关。结果显示,一年中较早产卵的幼虫会遇到更多有利于下沉的风和河水排放,从而推动漂流幼虫向岸上和南方迁移。这项研究揭示了一种物理机制,它反常地将包括商业贝类在内的底栖物种推向死亡率较高的温暖地区。

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(3)【生物多样性】热带远洋生物多样性过去和未来的下降情况

[Biodiversity] Past and future decline of tropical pelagic biodiversity

通过对世界海洋中丰富的单细胞生物--浮游有孔虫的钙化壳的综合全球数据集,我们发现热带海洋多样性衰退不是最近才出现的现象,但也并非起源于远古时代。这些生物在海洋沉积物中作为化石保存得非常好。最低纬度地区的多样性下降可能是由于大约15000年前冰期后的快速变暖开始的。到本世纪末,气候变暖可能使热带海洋多样性减少到人类历史上前所未有的水平。

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(4)【生物多样性】气候速度显示深海生物多样性越来越多地受到未来气候变暖的影响

[Biodiversity] Climate velocity reveals increasing exposure of deep-ocean biodiversity to future warming

深海升温较慢,使人们认为深海的生物多样性受气候变化的影响比表层水小。然而,研究发现,当代(1955-2005年)深海的气候速度比表层快。此外,在考虑最积极的温室气体减排途径(代表性浓度途径,RCP 2.6)下,除海面外,所有深度层的未来(2050-2100)气候速度预测都更快。这表明,虽然缓解措施可以限制气候变化对表层生物多样性的威胁,但深海生物多样性面临着不可避免的气候速度上升,最突出的是中层(200-1 000米)。为了优化深海生物群落适应气候的机会,未来的开阔洋保护区在设计上必须保留在气候变化下以不同速度在不同深度移动的物种,同时管理渔业和采矿等非气候威胁。

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(5)【生物多样性】利用古籍档案保护气候变化下的生物多样性

[Biodiversity] Using paleo-archives to safeguard biodiversity under climate change

全球变化下的21世纪环境管理和保护战略需要深入了解调解对气候和人类驱动的变化的响应的生物机制,以成功地缓解范围收缩、灭绝和生态系统服务的退化。可以利用跨学科方法,在原地和长期跟踪生物多样性对过去快速变暖事件的反应,这些方法为许多生物区域的物种保护和维持具有复原力的生态系统提供了具有成本效益和可扩展的信息。除了获得内在知识外,这种综合研究还将越来越多地提供背景、工具和相关案例研究,以帮助在21世纪及以后减轻气候导致的生物多样性损失。

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(6)【气候·渔业】适应能力水平影响巴西南部海湾渔业社区对气候变化的社会脆弱性

[Climate·Fisheries] Adaptive Capacity Level Shapes Social Vulnerability to Climate Change of Fishing Communities in the South Brazil Bight

为了确定不同沿海社区对气候变化脆弱性的影响因素,该研究在家庭一级对代表南巴西海湾地区的八个选定的渔业社区进行了调查,共采访了151名渔民。调查结果显示,偏远和缺乏与气候变化有关机构的支持增加了该地区渔业社区的脆弱性。另一方面,社区组织、领导力、研究伙伴关系、基于社区的共同管理和生计多样化降低了脆弱性。我们的分析重点是区域渔业社区对气候变化的社会脆弱性,并对沿海地区的这些影响、解释脆弱性的因素以及弹性和适应性系统的一些观点有了更好的理解。从生态系统一级的比较中获得的经验可用于其他地方的沿海地区。

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(7)【海洋·生境】融化的雪球效应:气候变化下北极地区可持续治理的启发式方法

[Ocean·Ecosystem] The Melting Snowball Effect: A Heuristic for Sustainable Arctic Governance Under Climate Change

北极地区的气候变化正在迅速发生。在世界最北端的城市斯瓦尔巴的朗伊尔比恩,雪崩和永久冻土融化引起的建筑破坏动摇了当地政府的责任划分。在北大西洋,海洋温度变暖促使鲭鱼种群迅速扩大,这既引发了地缘政治紧张,也引发了鱼类配额设定的科学政策层面上的紧张。研究引入了一个被称为 "融化的雪球效应 "的概念,它包含了随着气候变化(冰雪融化和永久冻土解冻)而增加可信情景数量的连锁反应("多米诺骨牌效应")。研究展示了 "融化雪球效应 "作为一种启发式方法在负责任的研究和创新(RRI)框架内的预测、参与和反思的使用。

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(8)【气候·海洋】逐步制定一项应对海洋资源气候位移的战略:概念验证

[Climate·Ocean] Moving Toward a Strategy for Addressing Climate Displacement of Marine Resources: A Proof-of-Concept

研究以欧洲鳀鱼为模型物种进行了概念验证研究,展示了如何利用基于性状的机械物种分布模型来探索海洋物种对环境变化的脆弱性,产生有助于为渔业管理提供信息的定量输出。研究表明,基于功能特征的模型预测可以减少预测鱼类种群未来趋势时的不确定性。然而,要想有效地进行预测,它们必须基于高空间和时间分辨率的环境数据。这种敏感和空间明确的预测方法可用于为新气候条件下更有效的资源适应性管理战略提供信息。

阅读/Read


其他资料 Other Resources

【生物多样性】创绿研究院 | “《生物多样性公约》与海洋”资源网页

[Biodiversity] Greenovation Hub | "Convention on Biodiversity and Ocean" Resource Webpage

专栏/Column


【划区管理】海洋保护区时讯特辑

[Area-based management] Marine Protected Area News Vault

专栏/Column


【海洋·生物】关于牡蛎的15个真相以及保护它们的必要性

[Ocean·Biology] 15 Facts About Oysters and the Need to Protect Them

简报/Briefing


【划区管理】关于海洋保护区与新冠疫情的更多资源:新型冠状病毒与可持续发展议程

[Area-based management] More resources on MPAs and COVID-19: COVID and SDGs

专栏/Column


【生物多样性】联合国生物多样性峰会总结

[Biodiversity] Summary of the UN Summit on Biodiversity

简报/Briefing


【划区管理】菲律宾社区中女性捍卫海洋保护区

[Area-based management] In this Philippine community, women guard a marine protected area

视频/Video


【海洋宏观】世界海洋电台:在现有保护措施之外建立一个海洋公域的新框架,以支持更大比例的海洋及其有限资源的健康和福祉

[Ocean in general] World Ocean Radio: a new framework for establishment of an ocean commons beyond the protections already in place to support the health and well-being of a larger percentage of the ocean and its finite resources

音频/Audio


【生物多样性】为什么生物多样性很重要?

[Biodiversity] Why is biodiversity important?

视频/Video


活动 Events

>>预告 Announcements

2020年10月20日 网络研讨会 清洁水流联盟:全球合作解决复杂的塑料问题的办法
2020.10.20 Webinar The Clean Currents Coalition: A global collaborative solution to the complex plastics problem
详情/Detail


2020年10月22日 网络研讨会 海洋探索线上系列 | 海洋变化:海洋星球的解决方案
2020.10.22 Webinar Ocean Encounters Virtual Series | Sea Change: Solutions for an Ocean Planet
详情/Detail


2020年10月31日 直播活动 海洋世界:潜入深海万圣节特辑“满月观影派对”
2020.10.31 Live Ocean Worlds: Creep into the Deep Halloween Special Full Moon Watch Party
详情/Detail


2020年12月01日 网络研讨会 改革性地利用海洋数据来缓解气候变化、过度捕捞和污染问题
2020.12.01 Webinar Revolutionizing ocean data to mitigate climate change, overfishing, and pollution
详情/Detail


>>回顾 Recordings

2020年10月05日 网络研讨会 “海洋年代”线上系列:海洋与人类健康
2020.10.05 Webinar The Ocean Decade Virtual Series: Ocean and Human Health
详情/Detail


2020年10月14日 网络研讨会 连接我们的蓝色星球:建立生态连接的海洋保护区网络。
2020.10.14 Webinar Connecting Our Blue Planet: Building Ecologically Connected Marine Protected Area Networks
详情/Detail


>>其他 Others

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我们正在跟踪新冠疫情导致的海洋相关国际会议安排的变动,最新的信息在这里


题图:菲律宾社区中女性捍卫海洋保护区, Mongabay | 制.