Issue 15 | Blue Pulse: Marine Conservation Bulletin


The statements by national leaders at the UN Biodiversity Summit are an important “stocktaking of political will” in the lead-up to next year’s 15th Conference of the Parties (COP15) to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).

导语 Introduction


The School of Oceanography, Shanghai Jiaotong University released a report on China's marine conservation sector on October 11. It created the concept of "marine conservation sector" as a cross-industry, cross-sector and cross-disciplinary concept. This is exactly the picture presented in this issue of Blue Pulse. From the political will of national leaders to the political and technical negotiations of international organizations, from state-led conservation actions to the new tools pioneered by the civil society, marine conservation needs a global and local perspective, as well as the participation of the whole society and the positive interaction of different stakeholders.


The statements by national leaders at the UN Biodiversity Summit are an important "stocktaking of political will" in the lead-up to next year's 15th Conference of the Parties (COP15) to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Just as the Paris Climate Agreement was preceded by a climate summit in New York to boost political momentum. China's announcement at this year's UN General Assembly of its 2060 "carbon neutral" target and its solemn commitment to the CBD process in its statement at the Biodiversity Summit have sent very positive signals. It remains to be seen how much momentum can be harvested from the summit in the negotiations on the High Seas Biodiversity Agreement and the Antarctic Marine Protected Areas.

时讯 News

取消有害渔业补贴 | Duangphorn Wiriya on Unsplash 摄


WTO members made progress on text negotiations to address harmful fisheries subsidies during the September cluster of meetings. Members discussed whether and how to ban subsidies for fishing outside one’s waters or beyond waters regulated by Regional Fisheries Management Organizations, to address overcapacity and overfishing.



The collective ambition expressed in the final decision of the fifteenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity will depend on the commitment of developed countries to support the availability of financial resources to support the poorest countries in implementing the necessary transition. The linkages between biodiversity and other aspects of sustainable development are increasingly appearing on the high-level political agenda. In addition, some 50 countries have called for better treatment of oceans issues in the negotiations of the Convention on Biological Diversity.



The five new species of deep-sea organisms named by the Institute of Oceanography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, are the Victorgorgia iocasica sp. nov., Laetmonice iocasica sp. nov., Tritonia iocasica sp. nov., Sternostylus iocasicus sp. nov., Caulophacus iocasicus sp. nov.



In August 2020, the Belizean government enacted two conservation efforts — the expansion of the Sapodilla Cayes Marine Reserve to be seven times its original size, and a plan to phase out gillnet fishing by 2022. The marine reserve expansion has helped Belize meet its international commitment to the Convention on Biological Diversity’s Aichi Target 11, which calls for nations to protect at least 10% of their marine environments by 2020. In order to bring gillnet fishing to an end, the Belizean government will help fishers transition to more sustainable livelihoods.



Sept. 28, heads of state from 64 countries signed a Leaders’ Pledge for Nature, committing to work together to put ecosystems—land, ocean, and freshwater—on a path toward sustainability and highlighting 10 urgent actions to be taken, which included 'eliminating plastic leakage to the ocean by 2050'.



A new interactive tool from The Pew Charitable Trusts can help maritime and fisheries authorities and seafood buyers determine where in the world illegally-caught seafood is most likely to enter the market. Illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing accounts for up to $23.5 billion worth of catch annually, causing continued overfishing of commercially valuable species and taking away jobs, food, and revenue from the people, companies, and countries obeying the law.


观点 Perspectives

渔船在每年的休渔期闲置在福建港口 | China Dialogue,Jiang Yifan 摄

(1)于亚妮 :“巨额燃油补贴加速了中国近海渔业资源的枯竭,在WTO渔业补贴谈判背景下,它的终结不再遥遥无期,这也意味着中国近海渔民正被迫面临转型。转型方向包括休闲渔业、养殖业,当地政府也通过打造特色旅游项目帮助引导渔民转型。未转型渔民面临渔业资源利用永续改革试行。”

Yu Yani:" Huge fuel subsidies have accelerated the depletion of China's near shore fishery resources, and their end is no longer out of sight in the context of WTO fisheries subsidy negotiations, which means that Chinese near shore fishermen are being forced to transform their operations. Transformation include recreational fishing and aquaculture, and local governments have also created tourism specialties to help guide fishermen through the transition. Fishermen who have not yet made the transition face a trial run of sustainable reform of their fishery resources use."


(2)Gordon Feller:“SmartCatch公司旨在解决过度捕捞和鱼类供应枯竭的问题。在初始阶段,该公司专注于提高大规模渔业的分析能力。SmartCatch正在为渔业提供实时分析和集成的企业资源规划系统物联网解决方案,以改善数据管理。”

Gordon Feller:" SmartCatch aims to address overfishing and depleting fish supplies. For the initial phase, the company is focusing on improving analytics in the large-scale fishing industry. SmartCatch is offering real-time analytics and an integrated ERP internet of things solution for fisheries to improve data management."


(3)Erich Hoyt:“四年来,世界自然保护联盟的工作组致力于对一种或多种海洋哺乳动物物种均具有重要意义的区域进行管理,即重要海洋哺乳动物区(IMMAs)。2020年8月,工作组结束了第六次区域研讨会,该研讨会涵盖澳大利亚、新西兰和东南印度洋。45个候选IMMAs中,经过独立审查,目前已有31个被批准为澳大利亚和新西兰常驻物种的IMMAs。”

Erich Hoyt:" An IUCN working group has been working for four years on area-based management of areas of significance for one or more marine mammal species, known as Important Marine Mammal Areas (IMMAs). In August 2020, the working group concluded its sixth regional workshop, which covered Australia, New Zealand and the Southeast Indian Ocean. Of the 45 candidate IMMAs, after an independent review. There are currently 31 IMMAs approved as resident species in Australia and New Zealand."


(4)Chris Chase:“美国西海岸的太平洋沙丁鱼渔场已正式获得太平洋渔业管理委员会颁发的(PFMC)的重建资质,渔民对此举表示赞赏,然而环保组织Oceana则谴责其‘不作为’,认为该举会加速渔业崩溃。”

Chris Chase:" The Pacific sardine fishery on the U.S. West Coast has officially been given a rebuilding plan by the Pacific Fishery Management Council (PFMC), a move that fishermen applauded and environmental organization Oceana has decried as a 'failure to act'."


(5)Jason Holland:“如果允许英国和欧盟在今年年底分道扬镳,而不在‘脱欧’后达成渔业协议,将为过度捕捞打开大门,并对许多鱼类种群和海洋生态系统构成严重风险。9月8日,欧盟和英国开始了新一轮的‘脱欧’后贸易协议谈判,预计渔业和捕鱼权将再次成为中心议题,成为达成更广泛协议的主要挑战之一。”

Jason Holland:" Allowing the United Kingdom and the European Union to part ways at the end of this year without an agreement on fisheries in place post-Brexit would open the door to overfishing and pose a serious risk to many fish stocks and marine ecosystems. On 8 September, the E.U. and U.K. began a new round of post-Brexit trade deal negotiations, with fisheries and fishing rights again expected to take center stage as one of the main obstacles to a broader deal."


(6)生态标签计划警告说,由于东北大西洋沿岸国家之间缺乏关于渔获量管理的国际协议,使得四座亚特兰蒂斯-斯堪的纳维亚鲱鱼渔场 "很有可能 "在12月30日失去其海洋管理委员会(MSC)证书。

A lack of international agreement between Northeast Atlantic coastal states on the management of catch levels have left four Atlanto-Scandian herring fisheries with “a high risk” of losing their Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) certificates on 30 December, the eco-label program has warned.


学术 Academics


[Ocean·Ecosystem] Changing circumpolar distributions and isoscapes of Antarctic krill: Indo‐Pacific habitat refuges counter long‐term degradation of the Atlantic sector




[Ocean·Biology] Wrong-way migrations of benthic species driven by ocean warming and larval transport

气候变暖促使一些海洋物种向极地或深水区迁移。然而在西北大西洋大陆架上,许多底栖无脊椎动物的活动范围反而向南转移,进入更浅更暖的水域。全球变暖引起了产卵时间和幼虫漂流迁移的变化,研究测试了这些 "错误方向 "的迁移是否与此相关。结果显示,一年中较早产卵的幼虫会遇到更多有利于下沉的风和河水排放,从而推动漂流幼虫向岸上和南方迁移。这项研究揭示了一种物理机制,它反常地将包括商业贝类在内的底栖物种推向死亡率较高的温暖地区。



[Biodiversity] Past and future decline of tropical pelagic biodiversity




[Biodiversity] Climate velocity reveals increasing exposure of deep-ocean biodiversity to future warming

深海升温较慢,使人们认为深海的生物多样性受气候变化的影响比表层水小。然而,研究发现,当代(1955-2005年)深海的气候速度比表层快。此外,在考虑最积极的温室气体减排途径(代表性浓度途径,RCP 2.6)下,除海面外,所有深度层的未来(2050-2100)气候速度预测都更快。这表明,虽然缓解措施可以限制气候变化对表层生物多样性的威胁,但深海生物多样性面临着不可避免的气候速度上升,最突出的是中层(200-1 000米)。为了优化深海生物群落适应气候的机会,未来的开阔洋保护区在设计上必须保留在气候变化下以不同速度在不同深度移动的物种,同时管理渔业和采矿等非气候威胁。



[Biodiversity] Using paleo-archives to safeguard biodiversity under climate change




[Climate·Fisheries] Adaptive Capacity Level Shapes Social Vulnerability to Climate Change of Fishing Communities in the South Brazil Bight




[Ocean·Ecosystem] The Melting Snowball Effect: A Heuristic for Sustainable Arctic Governance Under Climate Change

北极地区的气候变化正在迅速发生。在世界最北端的城市斯瓦尔巴的朗伊尔比恩,雪崩和永久冻土融化引起的建筑破坏动摇了当地政府的责任划分。在北大西洋,海洋温度变暖促使鲭鱼种群迅速扩大,这既引发了地缘政治紧张,也引发了鱼类配额设定的科学政策层面上的紧张。研究引入了一个被称为 "融化的雪球效应 "的概念,它包含了随着气候变化(冰雪融化和永久冻土解冻)而增加可信情景数量的连锁反应("多米诺骨牌效应")。研究展示了 "融化雪球效应 "作为一种启发式方法在负责任的研究和创新(RRI)框架内的预测、参与和反思的使用。



[Climate·Ocean] Moving Toward a Strategy for Addressing Climate Displacement of Marine Resources: A Proof-of-Concept



其他资料 Other Resources

【生物多样性】创绿研究院 | “《生物多样性公约》与海洋”资源网页

[Biodiversity] Greenovation Hub | "Convention on Biodiversity and Ocean" Resource Webpage



[Area-based management] Marine Protected Area News Vault



[Ocean·Biology] 15 Facts About Oysters and the Need to Protect Them



[Area-based management] More resources on MPAs and COVID-19: COVID and SDGs



[Biodiversity] Summary of the UN Summit on Biodiversity



[Area-based management] In this Philippine community, women guard a marine protected area



[Ocean in general] World Ocean Radio: a new framework for establishment of an ocean commons beyond the protections already in place to support the health and well-being of a larger percentage of the ocean and its finite resources



[Biodiversity] Why is biodiversity important?


活动 Events

>>预告 Announcements

2020年10月20日 网络研讨会 清洁水流联盟:全球合作解决复杂的塑料问题的办法
2020.10.20 Webinar The Clean Currents Coalition: A global collaborative solution to the complex plastics problem

2020年10月22日 网络研讨会 海洋探索线上系列 | 海洋变化:海洋星球的解决方案
2020.10.22 Webinar Ocean Encounters Virtual Series | Sea Change: Solutions for an Ocean Planet

2020年10月31日 直播活动 海洋世界:潜入深海万圣节特辑“满月观影派对”
2020.10.31 Live Ocean Worlds: Creep into the Deep Halloween Special Full Moon Watch Party

2020年12月01日 网络研讨会 改革性地利用海洋数据来缓解气候变化、过度捕捞和污染问题
2020.12.01 Webinar Revolutionizing ocean data to mitigate climate change, overfishing, and pollution

>>回顾 Recordings

2020年10月05日 网络研讨会 “海洋年代”线上系列:海洋与人类健康
2020.10.05 Webinar The Ocean Decade Virtual Series: Ocean and Human Health

2020年10月14日 网络研讨会 连接我们的蓝色星球:建立生态连接的海洋保护区网络。
2020.10.14 Webinar Connecting Our Blue Planet: Building Ecologically Connected Marine Protected Area Networks

>>其他 Others

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题图:菲律宾社区中女性捍卫海洋保护区, Mongabay | 制.