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This issue looks at the Southern Ocean and marine protected areas. In the Perspectives section of this issue, there is research that demonstrates that well-constructed marine protected areas can increase fish catches on a current basis, and the Academics section provides a detailed analysis of Norway’s position and role in marine protected areas in the Southern Ocean from a policy perspective. Marine protected areas can undoubtedly enhance the protection of the oceans and will be strongly promoted in the future, so it is important that research into the role of marine protected areas and the development of policy is undertaken now.


The focus of this issue is on climate change and the oceans. Climate change, one of the most important issues of concern in the 21st century, is also inextricably linked to the marine environment. Climate change is sending large numbers of sea turtles into icy water ‘traps’, and deep sea mining and offshore wind power projects are being promoted to curb climate change as well, with new impacts on the oceans. These are discussed in more detail in this issue.


This issue focuses on the fisheries and minerals of the oceans. This issue mentions the recent important fisheries meetings, the annual meeting of the Western Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) and the WTO negotiations on fisheries subsidies, in the hope that we can soon reach a truly sustainable stage of fisheries. In addition, this issue also focuses on the topic of deep-sea mining, with negotiations on deep-sea mining projects set to begin again this month, and the need to be more careful about how we use this rich resource.


Coastal wetlands are the main point of this issue. In the Perspectives section, the degradation of wetlands in the United States is used as an example, and the importance of wetlands for ecology and economy and the current urgency of wetland conservation are discussed in depth. In the Interpretations section, an article describes the ecological damage and status of an invasive species, Spartina alterniflora, that destroys salt marshes, and tells of the great efforts made in our country to combat this invasive species.


The ocean’s role in addressing climate change highlighted in the Glasgaw climate conference.


The 26th Conference of the Parties (COP26) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which has been postponed for a year due to the pandemic, is taking place in Glasgow, Scotland. Although the ocean is not the main topic of the conference, the outcome of the conference will determine the future of the ocean. The polar oceans are the fastest warming region and are a consistent focus of the Blue Pulse. Most sections in this issue discuss changes and conservation of the polar oceans under climate change and can be used as a reference for understanding the links between oceans and climate.

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