Issue 35 | Blue Pulse: Marine Conservation Bulletin

日期:

Regulation is the permanent keyword of marine conservation and governance. Issue 35 focuses on regulation, presenting suggestions, critiques, and case studies from society and academia on government regulation in terms of regulation approach, regulation intensity, and regulatory decision-making.

导语 Introduction

关键点一

2009年,埃莉诺·奥斯特罗姆凭借她自己的公共治理思想中的自主治理理论获得诺贝尔经济学奖。在哥本哈根气候大会溃败之后,不少国际制度的研究者开始从她的“多中心治理”理论中寻求全球环境治理的解决方案。本期的学术板块中收录了一篇基于多中心治理理论讨论公海生物多样性制度的文章。文章强调了谈判中的公海生物多样性协定(BBNJ)一旦生效可以对公海的治理产生的促进作用,使之能够有效回应公海日益增长的压力、不确定性和快速变化。

Highlight 1

In 2009, Elinor Ostrom was awarded the Nobel Prize in Economics for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons. In the wake of the debacle at the Copenhagen Climate Conference, many researchers of international regimes have begun to look to her theory of 'polycentric governance' for solutions to global environmental governance. This issue's Academic section includes a paper discussing the high seas biodiversity regime based on the theory of polycentric governance. The paper highlights the contribution that the high seas biodiversity (BBNJ) agreement currently being negotiated, once come into force, could enable the governance of the high seas to respond effectively to the growing pressures, uncertainties, and rapid changes.

关键点二

现代渔业管理就是一场管理效率追赶捕捞效率的比赛。二者之间的差距在一些发展中国家会特别明显。本期观点版块中有一篇针对巴西渔业管理的批评。缺乏数据和缺乏风险预防的方法是其受诟病的主要缺陷。而解读版块中收录的关于中国总可捕量控制试点的经验则正好从另一个角度展示出值得努力的方向和值得学习的经验教训。详细的报告在“其他资料”中可以下载。

Highlight 2

Modern fisheries management is a race for management efficiency to catch up with fishing efficiency. The gap between the two can be particularly pronounced in some developing countries. This issue's Perspective section includes a critique of Brazil's fisheries management. The lack of data and the lack of precautionary approach are the main flaws for which it is criticized. In the Interpretation section, the experience of China's pilots of total allowable catch (TAC), shows what is worth working towards and what lessons can be learned. The detailed report could be downloaded in the Other Resources section.


时讯 News

1)隶属于美国国家海洋和大气管理局(NOAA)太平洋岛屿渔业科学中心的海洋废弃物项目组和非盈利组织PMDP(帕帕哈瑙莫夸基亚海洋废弃物项目)展开合作,在美国帕帕哈瑙莫夸基亚国家海洋保护区共同发起了为期30天的海洋垃圾清理项目,以保护海洋保护区内的海洋生物和生态系统。

NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center's Marine Debris Project team launch a 30-day Marine Debris Removal Mission in the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument with support from the non-profit Papahānaumokuākea Marine Debris Project. 

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2)阿根廷与中国就发展水产养殖行业进行谈判。阿方寻求与中国的合作,希望中国能作为战略性的技术伙伴来帮助阿方发展水产养殖业。

Argentina is in talks with China to develop aquaculture. Argentina's government looks to partner with China and expects China to work as a strategic technology partner to help develop Argentina's domestic aquaculture sector.

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3)科技公司“4ocean”和“Poralu Marine”共同推出了创新性海滩清洁机器人BeBot,以回收沿海塑料碎片。相比于上一代产品,BeBot更易操作、噪音更小,非常擅长清除小片塑料垃圾,是人口密集地区海滩清理的理想方案。

Technology companies 4ocean and Poralu Marine have jointly launched BeBot, an innovative beach cleaning robot designed to recover coastal plastic debris. Easier to maneuver and quieter than previous products, BeBot excels at removing small pieces of plastic debris, making it the ideal solution for beach cleanups in densely populated areas.

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4)英国南极调查局开发的新一代人工智能系统IceNet能够提前六个月预测海冰的走向。它为科学家提供了一个新的早期预警系统,来保护人类社区和北极野生动物,例如北极熊,使他们免受海冰流失的影响。

The new artificial intelligence system IceNet developed by British Antarctic Survey could predict sea ice up to six months ahead. It provides scientists new early warning systems that protect communities and Arctic wildlife, such as polar bears, from the effects of sea ice loss.

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5)中国海洋石油集团有限公司(简称中海油)8月28日宣布,在南海珠江口盆地启动我国首个海上二氧化碳捕获与封存全流程工程。项目将油田开发过程中产生的二氧化碳进行捕集、处理后,再注回海底地层中封存。 

August 28, China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) announced to launch China's first offshore carbon capture and storage (CCS) project in the Pearl River Mouth Basin of the South China Sea. The project will capture and process the carbon dioxide generated during oilfield development, and then reinject it into seabed reservoirs for storage. 

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观点 Perspectives

位于俄勒冈州的一个排水渠。图中这样的排水渠以及其他障碍物会阻碍鱼类迁移和
通过,拦截对下游栖息地至关重要的沉积物,并通过降低氧气水平损害水质。
Justin Bailie | 摄

1) Francois Mosnier"如果能将全球用于有害渔业补贴金额的百分之一用于船上监测,增加有渔业观察员监测下的野生捕捞的比例,可以有意义地对减少非法捕捞和兼捕产生的影响。渔业观察员是部署在商业渔船上的独立专家,负责收集渔获量以及弃鱼、兼捕和海上转运的数据。收集有关渔获、兼捕、捕捞强度和遵守法律法规及履约信息,是确保渔业可持续性的关键。"

Francois Mosnier:"If one percent of global harmful fisheries subsidies were redirected to onboard monitoring, the proportion of wild-catch fishing monitored by observers could create a meaningful impact in reducing illegal fishing and bycatch. Fisheries observers are independent specialists placed onboard commercial fishing vessels to collect data on catch volumes as well as discards, bycatch, and transshipments at sea. Gathering information on catch, bycatch, fishing effort, and compliance with regulations is key to securing the sustainability of fisheries."

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2) Beatrice Padovan: 缺乏丰富的渔业部门数据和对相关信息技术的漠视,阻碍了巴西的渔业管理。"一个不知道自己捞了什么鱼,捞了多少鱼的国家,在管理上会存在极强的不确定性。渔业管理应该基于详实的数据和预防性原则,而不是盲目的乐观主义"。

Beatrice Padovan: The lack of productive statistics from the sector and disregard for relevant technical information hinder the control of fisheries in Brazil. “A country that does not know what it fishes is subject to great uncertainties in management, which should be conducted based on the precautionary principle. The fishery cannot follow a 'permissiveness by optimism' [principle].”

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3) Pew Charitable Trust:8月10日,美国参议院批准了基础设施投资和就业法案。如果法案被众议院批准并签署为法律,该法案将首次为建造野生动物通道提供专有资源,例如将向各州、地方政府和部落提供 10 亿美元的赠款(在五年内平均分配),用于修复或拆除涵洞,以改善濒危或受威胁鱼类的通道。

Pew Charitable Trust: The Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act was approved by the U.S. Senate on Aug. 10. If approved by the House of Representatives and signed into law, the act would provide $1 billion—spread equally over five years—in grants to states, local governments, and tribes to repair or remove culverts to improve passage for endangered or threatened fish.

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4) Victoria Fulfer & Susanne Menden-Deuer:塑料污染不仅仅对大型海洋动物有影响。甲藻这样的单细胞的海洋微生物也会摄入微塑料,而摄入微塑料会限制它们的生长,进而影响甲藻的丰度,最终影响到以这些微小生物为食的大型海洋动物。

Victoria Fulfer & Susanne Menden-Deuer: Plastic pollution is not just a problem for larger marine animals. Dinoflagellates, which are single-celled marine predators, can also ingest microplastic which in turn limits their growth and consequently their overall abundance. Consequently, this will have an impact on the larger marine animals that feed on these tiny creatures.

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5) Laly Lichtenfeld:“全世界对不公正和不平等的关注、新冠带来的影响、和全球环境恶化的威胁加速了保护领域的变化。现在是时候仔细思考谁是影响保护决定的利益相关方,了解并克服权力互动带来的问题,并考虑我们如何能更好地相互沟通和听取意见。”

Laly Lichtenfeld:“Worldwide concern about injustice and inequity, the impacts of the pandemic, and the worsening effects of global environmental degradation has accelerated change in the conservation sector. It's time to scrutinize who's in the room when conservation decisions are made. Understanding and overcoming the power dynamics at play, and considering how we can better communicate with and listen to one another.”

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解读 Interpretations

印度尼西亚红树林下的珊瑚礁
 Brook Peterson (Ocean Image Bank) | 摄

1) 中外对话:绿色航运是否喷薄欲出?

China Dialogue: Is green shipping on the horizon?

发展绿色航运对减少全球的碳排放量至关重要。尽管有一些好的信号,但绿色航运的发展仍任重道远。负责排放监管工作的国际海事组织(IMO)长期被批评缺乏强硬的措施来抑制排放,以及用一些无效的短期措施来拖延问题的解决。好消息是各国政府在发展绿色航运上有更大的雄心,欧盟投票决定从2022年起将海运二氧化碳排放纳入排放交易计划,明年年初起,欧洲航线上的船东们必须购买碳排放许可,以抵补碳排放。美国也首次将航运排放纳入了提交给联合国的新版气候计划。

The development of green shipping is vital to reduce global carbon emissions. Despite some positive signs, green shipping still has a long way to go. The International Maritime Organization (IMO), which is responsible for shipping emission regulation, has long been criticized for its lack of tough measures to curb emissions and for delaying the problem with ineffective, short-term measures. The good news is that governments are more ambitious in developing green shipping. European Union voted to include maritime CO2 emissions in an emissions trading scheme from 2022. From the start of next year, shipowners on European routes will be forced to buy carbon permits to cover carbon emissions. The U.S. also included shipping emissions for the first time in its updated climate plan submitted to the UN.

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2) Environmental Defensive Fund: 蓝碳:未经雕琢的钻石

Environmental Defensive Fund: Blue Carbon: a diamond in the rough

海洋在全球碳处理和储存方面发挥着至关重要的作用,但它却也是利用最少的地方之一。可被视为 "自然气候解决方案 "的蓝碳工作主有三个主要部分:沿海湿地的管理、修复和提高;大型藻类的修复、增长和养殖;以及可从根本上改善其碳前景的近海海洋生态系统管理的新方法。

The ocean plays a major role in global carbon processing and storage, but it's also among the least utilized. The three main buckets of Blue Carbon work that can be considered "natural climate solutions" include: coastal wetland stewardship, restoration, and enhancement; macroalgal restoration, enhancement, and farming; and new approaches to offshore ocean ecosystem management that could radically improve its carbon prospects. 

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3) Pew Charitable Trust:关于公海保护,我们需要了解什么

Pew Charitable Trust:What You Need to Know and Do to Protect the High Seas

公海治理存在许多挑战:缺少建立综合的公海海洋保护区的法律机制,也缺少为在国家管辖范围以外的水域发生的活动进行环境影响评估的全球框架。BBNJ条约可以填补关键的治理空白,使公海海洋保护区得以建立。

There are several challenges in high seas governance: There is no legal mechanism for establishing comprehensive marine protected areas on the high seas, and there is no global framework for conducting environmental impact assessments for activities taking place in these waters beyond national jurisdiction. The BBNJ treaty can fill key governance gaps and enable high seas marine protected areas to be established.

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4) Our Shared Seas: 为什么保护30%的海洋的成功取决于好水质

Our Shared Seas: Why 30×30 Success Depends on Good Water Quality

糟糕的水质是对海洋和沿岸生态系统健康和恢复力的首要威胁,废水污染正在使沿海水质变差,并影响许多地方的海洋生态系统健康,包括海洋保护区(MPA)内的生态系统。解决废水污染的紧迫性只会随着气候变化而增加,越来越多的证据表明这两种威胁会相互加重。保护水质最好的方法就是预防。废水和生活污水污染是可以避免的。

Poor water quality is a top threat to marine and coastal ecosystem health and resilience, and wastewater pollution is driving coastal water quality declines and affecting marine ecosystem health in many places, including within marine protected areas (MPAs). The urgency of addressing wastewater pollution is only increasing with climate change, as accumulating evidence shows that the two threats compound one another. Water quality is best protected through prevention, and wastewater and sewage pollution are avoidable.

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5) 孙芳: 限额捕捞的浙江和福建经验

Sun Fang: Sustainable fisheries management experiences from China

中国在2017年启动了总可捕量(TAC)试点,并相继在浙江和山东等沿海省份开展了15个试点项目。这些试点项目为实现科学的总可捕量开辟了道路。试点项目证明了核查报告渔获量、有效执法和建立合规激励机制的重要性。

China launched total allowable catch, or TAC, pilots in 2017, and has successively carried out 15 pilot projects in coastal provinces like Zhejiang and Shandong. The pilot projects turn out to create a path toward scientific TACs. The pilots demonstrated the importance of verification of reported catch, effective enforcement, and establishing incentives for compliance.

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6) 中国海洋研究发展中心:国家海洋生态文明建设示范区:长岛综合试验区和青岛市初步评估与展望

Academic of Ocean of China: National Marine Ecological Civilization Construction Demonstration Zone: Preliminary Assessment and Prospects of Changdao Comprehensive Experimental Zone and Qingdao City

长岛和青岛市都已达到海洋生态文明建设示范区的较高水平。其中长岛遵循生态文明建设的“绿色发展模式”,一方面推进生态保护修复工程和各类自然保护区体系建设,另一方面推行生态立体化生物养殖,使得长岛海洋生物多样性丰富且基本稳定。青岛市从区域整体性生态文明建设和社会主义现代化建设的层次来思考海洋生态文明建设,青岛市的海洋管理制度建设已经发展为我国海洋生态文明建设的标杆。

Both Changdao and Qingdao City have reached a high level of development as marine ecological civilization construction demonstration areas. Changdao follows the "green development model" of ecological civilization construction. On the one hand, it promotes ecological protection and restoration projects, and various nature reserve systems and implements ecological vertical aquaculture on the other hand. These measures secure a rich and stable marine biodiversity in Changdao. Qingdao City promotes the construction of marine ecological civilization from the aspect of regional holistic development and socialist modernization. Its marine management system has become a benchmark for marine ecological civilization construction in China.

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学术 Academics

1) 【海洋生态】海洋酸化和纳米塑料暴露对南极磷虾胚胎发育的影响

【Climate & Ocean】The Effects of Combined Ocean Acidification and Nanoplastic Exposures on the Embryonic Development of Antarctic Krill

在水生环境中,塑料污染总是和海洋酸化等人为的气候压力同时出现。海洋酸化和塑料污染对南极磷虾生育的单一影响已经得到了广泛认同,然而塑料微粒加上海洋酸化的潜在多重压力影响还没有被研究过。我们研究了塑料微粒加上海洋酸化的潜在多重压力对南极磷虾生育率的影响,结果表明,在多重压力的纳米塑料和海洋酸化情景下,南极磷虾胚胎的发育程度最低。 因此,在处理南极磷虾的早期发育时,需要在多重压力情景下考虑塑料污染。

阅读/Read


2) 【气候·海洋】用物种分布模型估测气候变化对中华白海豚潜在分布的影响

【Ocean Ecosystem】Estimating the impact of climate change on the potential distribution of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins with species distribution model

我们的集合模型对2050年和2100年的预测表明,气候变化对易危动物中华白海豚的栖息地有严重的不利影响。在2050年代和2100年代的所有代表性浓度途径排放情景(RCPs)下,超过75%和80%的适合中华白海豚的栖息地将会消失。为了应对未来栖息地的收缩和极地转移,应制定适应性管理策略,包括设计新的保护区,并根据中华白海豚的地理分布调整保护区的位置和范围,以减少气候变化对该物种的影响。

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3) 【海洋治理】 综合海洋管理的综合研究

【Ocean Governance】Integrated Research for Integrated Ocean Management

多方面和多用途的生态系统监管对地方政府一直极具挑战,大多因为沿岸和海洋社会生态系统(SES)的复杂性、管理方法的多样性、以及经济活动和自然保护之间经常发生的利益冲突。解决这些问题需要采取综合性方法,弥补科学、政策和社会之间的差距,并跨越不同管理方法的认知界限。我们提出了综合研究方法的三个关键考虑因素,包括(1)目标设定、资源管理和适应性规划;(2)知识生产和对政策和社会的回应;以及(3)共同设计、共同开发、合作以及有效沟通。本文提出的考虑因素旨在科学、政策和社会之间的有效转化,以支持海洋科学十年内的可持续沿海和海洋治理。

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4) 【海洋治理】 多中心性和区域海洋治理:对联合国即将到来的国家管辖范围以外区域海洋生物多样性协定的启发

【Fishery Management】Polycentricity and Regional Ocean Governance: Implications for the Emerging UN Agreement on Marine Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction

目前,国家管辖范围外区域(ABNJ)的治理是碎片化的,有不同的机构对应不同区域,管理具体的不同活动和产生的具体问题。这阻碍了国际社会以综合和基于生态系统的方式解决关键生态问题的能力,包括生物多样性丧失、污染、气候变化、生态系统退化和渔业衰退等问题的处理。为此,我们提出了七个刺激ABNJ在全球和区域层面上推动综合行动的方法。

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5) 【气候·海洋】全球海洋变暖开始的时间晚于原先的判断

【Climate & Ocean】Global ocean warming started later in the 20th century than previously estimated

地球能量不平衡的历史演变可以通过全球海洋热含量的变化来量化。然而,由于对2000米以下海洋温度的观测极少,对海洋热含量的历史数据推演往往忽略了大范围的深海。我们在模型中对最大深度海洋热含量历史变化进行重建,发现在20世纪后半叶的大部分时间里,地球能量预算在-0.16到0.06Wm-2范围内大致平衡,而在过去的三十年中,海洋变暖的速度迅速加快。这说明与之前的判断相比,全球海洋变暖开始的时间要晚一些。

阅读/Read


其他资料 Other Resources

1) 【渔业管理】NOAA发布2021年全球IUU捕捞和受保护海洋生物资源兼捕的报告
【Fishery Management】NOAA Issues 2021 Report on Global IUU Fishing and Bycatch of Protected Marine Life Resources
报告/Report


2) 【海洋生态】关于海洋健康,贝类能告诉我们什么?
【Ocean Ecosystem】What can seashells tell us about the health of the oceans?
播客/Podcast


3)【渔业管理】中国限额捕捞试点阶段性总结研究
【Fishery Management】Progress of China's TAC System
报告/Report 中文 EN


4) 【渔业管理】可持续渔业合作伙伴工具将改善对渔业改进工作的跟踪
【Fishery Management】Updated Sustainable Fisheries Partnership tool will improve tracking of fishery improvement efforts
工具/Tool


活动 Events

>>预告 Upcoming Events

2021年9月16日 网络研讨会 使用渐进式方法处理渔业管理和海洋生态系统管理中的“不道德问题”
2021.9.16 Webinar: Using an incremental approach for “wicked problems” in fisheries management and marine EBM
详情/Detail


2021年9月22日 网络研讨会 推动中国海产品的可持续化:洞见与机遇
2021.9.22 Webinar: Building a Sustainable Seafood Movement in China: Insights and Opportunities
详情/Detail


2021年10月13日 网络研讨会 海岸带适应的蓝图
2021.10.13 Webinar: Blueprint for Coastal Adaptation
详情/Detail


>>回顾 Recordings

2021年9月3日-11日 世界自然保护联盟2020年世界保护大会
2021.9.3-11 IUCN World Conservation Congress
详情/Detail


2021年7月7日 网络研讨会 如何利用多样化的激励措施来促进有效和公平的MPA治理:新案例研究和实践指导
2021.7.7 How to use diverse incentives to promote effective and equitable MPA governance: New case studies and practical guidance
详情/Detail


2021年8月16日 网络研讨会 蓝色先锋计划专家讲座系列
详情/Detail


2021年8月26日 网络研讨会 为海洋等区域的气候行动而改变
2021.8.26 Behavior Change for Climate Action for the Oceans and Beyond
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>>其他 Others

本快讯两周更新一期,往期内容可以查看这里。如果您在快讯内容或形式上有任何意见或建议,欢迎发邮件至ocean@ghub.org告诉我们,也欢迎您将《蓝色脉搏》推荐给同事和朋友

我们正在跟踪新冠疫情导致的海洋相关国际会议安排的变动,最新的信息在这里

感谢实习同事张辰熙对本期快讯的贡献。


题图: 蓝脸鲣鸟和褐鲣鸟落在海滩上的废弃渔网上。帕帕哈瑙莫夸基亚国家海洋保护区是超过7000种海洋生物的栖息地。NOAA | 制