Issue 32 | Blue Pulse: Marine Conservation Bulletin

日期:

This issue highlights key information on sharks and fisheries conservation. To better protect sharks, people must overcome stereotypes about them and actively promote conservation policies. In addition, the essays in the academic section discuss how people should make the right decisions in fisheries management and conservation to safeguard our blue sea.

导语 Introduction

关键点一

本期是《蓝色脉搏》第一次关注鲨鱼。还记得上一次在故事片中提到保护鲨鱼的情节吗?想不起来就对了,不论是直接关于鲨鱼的《大白鲨》系列、《鲨滩》、《鲨卷风》、《巨齿鲨》等,还是间接提及鲨鱼的海军电影例如《印第安纳波利斯号》、《海之魂》,鲨鱼的形象基本上就是“嗜血狂魔”。本期的观点板块中有一位专家对此文化现象和鲨鱼保护的关系进行了评价。在解读版块也有两篇文章介绍鲨鱼的生活习性和遇到的挑战。《蓝色脉搏》相信,一些优秀海洋记录片的传播正在改变公众对于鲨鱼的刻板印象,这种改变将推动更多有效的保护政策落地。

Highlight 1

This issue marks the first time that The Blue Pulse turns its attention to sharks. Remember the last time shark protection was mentioned in a feature film? If not, you are not alone. Whether in the movies directly about shark attacks such as the Jaws, Shark Beach, or Sharknado, or in naval films mentioned sharks such as the USS Indianapolis or Spirit of the Sea (China, 1995), sharks are essentially portrayed as "bloodthirsty monsters". In this issue's Opinion section, an expert comments on the relationship between this cultural phenomenon and shark conservation. There are also two articles in the Interpretation section on the habits and challenges of sharks. Blue Pulse believes that the dissemination of some of the best marine documentaries is changing the stereotype of sharks and that this change will lead to more effective conservation policies being implemented.

关键点二

本期继续关注渔业和保护的管理决策。如何充分发挥利益相关方在渔业管理中的作用?如何区别保护需要和保护时机?如何通过更加细致的管理来补充季节性的禁渔措施?在信息有限的情况下如何进行决策?(不做决定也是一种决策)本期的学术版块继续这些“灵魂之问”的讨论。

Highlight 2

This issue continues to look at fisheries and conservation management decisions. How can the role of stakeholders in fisheries management be fully exploited? How to distinguish between conservation needs and opportunities? How can seasonal closures be complemented by more careful management? How can decisions be made when scientific information is limited? (Not making decisions is still a decision). The discussions on these 'million-dollar questions' are continued in this Academic section.


时讯 News

图片
海洋中的珊瑚礁 | SEVENSEAS Media

(1)为了应对珊瑚礁持续退化的挑战,Khaled bin Sultan海洋生物基金会(KSLOF)正在与NASA位于加州硅谷的艾姆斯研究中心合作,利用该基金会关于珊瑚礁的大量高分辨率数据来扩大NASA的珊瑚映射能力。

To meet the challenge of losing corals, the Khaled bin Sultan Living Oceans Foundation (KSLOF) is partnering with NASA’s Ames Research Center in California’s Silicon Valley to use the Foundation’s extensive high-resolution data about reefs to expand NASA’s coral mapping capabilities.

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(2)Scripps海洋研究所的多尺度海洋动力学小组与来自麻省理工学院和伍兹霍尔海洋研究所、南安普顿大学、埃克塞特大学和法国IFREMER的科学家和工程师一起,开始尝试在海底观察湍流过程。

The Multiscale Ocean Dynamics group at Scripps has set out, along with scientists and engineers from MIT and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, the University of Southampton, the University of Exeter, and France's IFREMER to try and observe turbulent processes right at the seafloor. 

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(3)加州大学洛杉矶分校的生态学家Paul Barber及其同事,与其他三个机构合作创建了一个DNA信息库,可以识别加利福尼亚洋流中的605个物种,包括275个以前没有被编入目录的物种。该数据库涵盖了生活在那里70%的动物,包括99.9%保护和渔业中的重要监测物种。

UCLA ecologist Paul Barber and colleagues from UCLA and three other institutions have created a library of DNA "barcodes" that identify 605 species in the California Current, including 275 that had not previously been cataloged. The database covers about 70% of all animals that live there, including 99.9% of monitored species that are important to conservation and fisheries.

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(4)五月以来,北太平洋海域的压力和风向变化使海面温度上升超过了正常水平。在这个过程中形成了强烈的海洋热浪,正影响着区域天气和海洋生物。

Pressure and wind changes in the North Pacific Ocean have enabled the sea surface temperatures to rise above normal levels. A strong oceanic heatwave has formed in this process, impacting the regional weather and marine life.

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(5)联合国生物多样性公约(CBD)秘书处已经发布了新的全球生物多样性框架的第一份草案,这份文件的终稿将指导到2030年的全球行动,维护和保护自然及其对人类的关键服务。该框架草案将在今年夏末的在线谈判中得到进一步完善,然后提交给在中国昆明举行的COP-15的196个缔约方审议。

The Secretariat of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) has released the first draft of a new global biodiversity framework, to guide actions worldwide through 2030, to preserve and protect nature and its essential services to people. The draft framework will undergo further refinement during online negotiations in late summer 2021 before being presented for consideration at CBD’s next meeting of its 196 Parties at COP-15, in Kunming, China.

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观点 Perspectives

图片
海洋中的鲨鱼群 | CC0 Public Domain 制

(1)王宏:“中国作出了‘推动绿色发展、促进人与自然和谐共生‘的重大部署,自然资源部也将围绕新要求,实施新举措,努力创造新业绩:加快推动海洋绿色低碳发展,持续提升海洋生态系统质量和稳定性,全面提高海洋资源利用效率,积极推动构建海洋命运共同体。”

Hong Wang: "China has made a major deployment of 'promoting green development and harmonious coexistence between human beings and nature', and the Ministry of Natural Resources will also focus on new requirements, implement new initiatives and strive to create new performance: accelerating the green and low-carbon development of the ocean, continuously improving the quality and stability of the marine ecosystem, comprehensively improving the efficiency of marine resources utilization, and actively building maritime community with a shared future."

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(2)Le Busque博士:”人们对鲨鱼的了解大多是通过电影或新闻,这些媒介常常将鲨鱼介绍为一种令人深感恐惧的物种。鲨鱼受到人类伤害的风险比人类受到鲨鱼伤害的风险大得多,全球鲨鱼的数量在迅速减少,许多不同种的鲨鱼面临灭绝的风险。激化这种与鲨鱼的实际威胁不相称的恐惧,损害了对鲨鱼的保护工作,而且往往影响人们选择支持那些其实有潜在危害的防鲨策略。“

Dr. Le Busque: "Most of what people know about sharks is obtained through movies, or the news, where sharks are typically presented as something to be deeply feared. Sharks are at much greater risk of harm from humans than humans from sharks, with global shark populations in rapid decline, and many species at risk of extinction. Exacerbating a fear of sharks that's disproportionate to their actual threat damages conservation efforts, often influencing people to support potentially harmful mitigation strategies."

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(3)麦康森:“为持续推进水产业绿色发展,可以提出五条建议:(1)制定国家水产品产量目标,划定水产养殖水面红线,规划具体的养殖区、限养区、禁养区以及养殖容量;采取许可证准入制度,尽快实现我国传统家庭式经营到规模化现代渔业转型。(2)加强渔药代谢的基础研究和专用渔药开发,指导科学用药。(3)加强与水产养殖环境、产品质量安全的立法,加大执法力度。(4)建立水产品安全监测的市场化机制,政府以购买服务方式引入优质、高效、公平的第三方检测服务。(5)严格控制生食水产品、建立完善的水产品冷链物流体系。”

Kangsen Mai: "In order to continuously promote the green development of the aquaculture industry, five recommendations can be made: (1) Develop national aquatic production targets, delineate aquaculture water surface red line, plan specific breeding areas, restricted areas, prohibited areas, as well as breeding capacity; adopt a license system, as soon as possible to achieve the transformation of China's traditional family-type operations to large-scale modern fisheries. (2) Strengthen the basic research on the metabolism of fishery drugs and the development of fishery- drugs to guide the scientific use of drugs. (3) Strengthen the legislation with aquaculture environment, product quality and safety, and increase law enforcement efforts. (4) Establish a market-based mechanism for monitoring the safety of aquatic products. The government should buy services to introduce high-quality, efficient and fair third-party testing services. (5) Strictly control raw aquatic products, establish a comprehensive cold chain logistics system for aquatic products."

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(4)王文涛:“中方坚定维护多边贸易体制,推动构建人类命运共同体。结束渔业补贴谈判将是世贸组织为实现2030年可持续发展目标做出的重要贡献,也将增强国际社会对多边主义的信心。中方支持在世贸组织第12届部长级会议前结束谈判,并将继续以积极姿态参与下一阶段谈判。作为发展中国家和渔业大国,中国将在谈判中承担与自身发展阶段和能力相适应的国际义务。“

Wentao Wang: "China firmly upholds the multilateral trading system and promotes the building of a community of shared future for mankind. Concluding the negotiations on fisheries subsidies will be an important contribution by the WTO to achieving the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals and will enhance the international community's confidence in multilateralism. China supports the conclusion of the negotiations before the 12th WTO Ministerial Conference and will continue to participate in the next phase of negotiations in a positive manner. As a developing country and a major fishing country, China will undertake international obligations in the negotiations that are commensurate with its own development stage and capacity."

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(5) Marc-Philip Buckhout:我们正处于第六次大规模灭绝的过程中。如果允许海底拖网等破坏性的捕鱼行为继续下去,海洋保护区就无法发挥其保护海洋生物的重要作用。禁止在海洋保护区内进行底拖网捕捞,将防止生物多样性进一步丧失,使海洋能够缓解气候变化,并带来社会经济效益。

Marc-Philip Buckhout: "We are in the midst of the 6th mass extinction.  Marine protected areas cannot perform their crucial role to protect marine life if destructive fishing activities such as bottom trawling is allowed to continue. Banning bottom-trawling from Marine Protected Areas, would allow us to fight biodiversity loss and enable the ocean to mitigate climate change, with net socio-economic benefits."

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解读 Interpretations

图片
在海王星群岛觅食的鲨鱼 | Brian Skerry

(1)国家地理:为什么大白鲨对我们来说仍然是个谜

为了了解大白鲨是否需要我们的保护,我们不仅要知道它们的数量,还要知道它们去了哪里。它们的迁徙并不像鸟类或蝴蝶的迁徙那样整齐,而是杂乱无章的,有的紧贴着海岸,有的则以 "之 "字形迁徙,甚至离岸数百英里。许多(但不是全部)大白鲨似乎季节性地在暖冷水域间移动,而且雄性、雌性和幼体的路径也不同。现在我们知道,它们去了太平洋中部的深水区。

National Geographic: To understand whether great white sharks need our protection, we must know not only how many there are but also where they go. Their migrations aren't neat, like a bird's or a butterfly's. They're messy, with one hugging the coast while another zigzags hundreds of miles out to sea. Many, but not all, seem to seasonally move between warm and cold water. And the paths seem different for males, females, and juveniles. Now we know where they go: deep water in the middle of the Pacific Ocean.

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(2)布里斯班时报:澳大利亚南部的鲨鱼和鳐鱼被气候变化 “逼上绝路”

澳大利亚南部的鲨鱼和鳐鱼面临着越来越大的威胁,因为日渐温暖的水域将更多的热带物种逼向南方,栖息地的变化加剧了极度濒危物种面临的威胁。一项旨在确定从西澳大利亚州西南部到新南威尔士州的水域间约132种不同物种所面临的风险的研究已经发表在《鱼类和渔业》杂志上。这一研究试图为有关部门提供一种方法,为过度捕捞和气候变化的威胁做好准备。

Brisbane Times: Southern Australia’s sharks and rays face mounting threats as warmer waters push more tropical species southwards and habitats change, exacerbating threats to critically endangered species. A study aimed at identifying the risks to some 132 different species found in waters ranging from southwest Western Australia to NSW has been published in the Fish and Fisheries journal. It seeks to give authorities a method to prepare for the threats of overfishing and climate change.

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(3)伍兹霍尔海洋研究所:为什么珊瑚会白化

当珊瑚受到环境压力时,它们的虫黄藻会努力地应对阳光,开始制造可能破坏珊瑚的分子。为了保护自己不受这些分子的影响,珊瑚迫使虫黄藻离开。没有了虫黄藻的颜色,骨架就会透过透明的珊瑚虫闪闪发光。珊瑚变成了幽灵般的白色,这就是我们所说的白化。

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution: When corals become stressed, their zooxanthellae struggle to process sunlight. They begin to make molecules that can harm the coral. To protect themselves from those molecules, the corals force the algae to leave. Without color from the zooxanthellae, the skeleton shines through the clear polyps. The coral turns a ghostly white, and we say that it has bleached.

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(4)网易:吃了30多年的冷冻远洋鱿鱼,我们还能吃多久

中国的远洋鱿钓在30多年时间里,虽然取得了令人瞩目的成就,但也面临挑战。2019年,我国在西南大西洋的阿根廷鱿鱼渔场,平均单船产量只有50吨,远远低于之前捕捞季最高单船产量超2000吨的记录。我们能做的,除了提升鱿鱼产品的加工品质,丰富产品线外,更多的精力还是可以放在扩大内需市场上。随着生活水平的提高和冷链物流的普及,冷冻鱿鱼在国内市场必将大有作为。

NetEase: China's distant water squid fishing has made remarkable achievements in more than 30 years, but it also faces challenges. 2019, China's squid fishery in the southwest Atlantic, the average single-ship production is only 50 tons, far below the previous record of over 2,000 tons in one fishing season. What we can do, in addition to improving the processing quality of squid products and enriching the product line, more efforts can still be put on expanding the domestic market. After all, with the improvement of living standards and the popularization of cold chain logistics, frozen squid will definitely make a big difference in the domestic market.

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(5)ARC 珊瑚礁研究卓越中心:禁止盗捕后的惨痛代价

数以百万计的人依赖鱼类和海产品,在没有其他选择的情况下,一些人会选择盗捕和非法捕捞(IUU渔业)来维持生计。但是,如果没有一个区域战略和投资来重建和管理各国的渔业,这就变成了一个大型的打地鼠游戏:人们解决了一个地区的问题,但问题又在另一个地区出现。

ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies: Millions of people rely on fish and seafood and when offered no alternative choice, will chose banditry and illegal fishing to get by. But without a regional strategy and investments for rebuilding and managing countries' fisheries, this just becomes one big game of whack-a-mole: people deal with the problem in one area, only for it to pop up in another.

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学术 Academics

(1)【海洋治理】如何才能减少对地中海资源的过度开发?

[Ocean Governance] How Can We Reduce the Overexploitation of the Mediterranean Resources?

文章根据渔业的一些特点(多鱼种和多种渔具)和主要渔业资源的种群数量状况(过度捕捞和过度开发),提出了一些针对地中海底栖和小型中上层渔业可持续性改善的建议。在开发单一或少数物种的渔业中,如小型中上层鱼类和深水红虾,建议采用基于捕捞配额方法的管理系统。在开发具有非常不同生物特征的物种的混合渔业中,建议将捕捞量减少到与主要目标物种的 "相当好的产量 "的下限相对应的水平,同时改善最敏感的相关物种的状况,采取技术措施来减少由捕捞造成的死亡。考虑到地中海国家不同的发展水平,本文同时简要地讨论了所建议的方法的可行性。

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(2)【技术工具】确定空间参照的保护需求和时机的方法

[Techs & Tools] Methods for identifying spatially referenced conservation needs and opportunities

为了应对生境退化、资源过度开发和气候变化等威胁,保护区的覆盖范围正在迅速扩大。鉴于资源有限,保护科学家已经开发出系统性的方法来确定如何保护生物多样性最为有效。为了进一步提高保护区的成果,规划者还试图将非生态数据纳入保护区的设计,也包括关于保护时机的数据。我们发现,虽然专家们很容易识别保护需求和时机的区域,但大多数人不容易区分文献中提出的不同类型(现有的、潜在的和短暂的)。我们的数据收集和规划方法可以提供对生态需求和采取行动的时机之间的权衡,因此有助于识别和减少设计有效的海洋保护区所面临的障碍。

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(3)【渔业管理】季节性禁渔期对菲律宾Visayan海沙丁鱼和鲭鱼产量的影响

[Fishery Management] Effect of a Seasonal Fishery Closure on Sardine and Mackerel Catch in the Visayan Sea, Philippines

对于季节性的禁渔政策效果存在不同观点,原因在于季节性禁渔政策面临的如下几个问题:缺乏实施指导、受影响的利益相关者缺乏替代生计、非法捕鱼的持续存在,以及政策实施不平衡等问题。由于这种季节性禁渔的管理目标是养护被监管的物种,但是休渔在这方面的效果并不好,因此可能还需要其他管理措施来辅助实现。这些措施包括更一致的执法,改善渔业管理者和利益相关者之间的合作和沟通,限制捕鱼的大小和渔具,以及确定并保护恢复过度开发的物种所需的关键生境。

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(4)【渔业管理】将渔业管理挑战与模型和分析相联系,支持加州洋流生态系统的管理的案例研究

[Fishery Management] A Case Study in Connecting Fisheries Management Challenges with Models and Analysis to Support Ecosystem-Based Management in the California Current Ecosystem

文章介绍了一个来自美国西海岸的案例,即太平洋渔业管理委员会的渔业生态系统计划所建立的NOAA加州洋流生态系统年度生态系统状况报告的利益相关者审查,展示了一个确立渔业管理优先事项的过程,这些优先事项需要生态系统模型和分析的信息支持。文章举例说明了在美国西海岸建立的现有管理程序可用于实现管理者、利益相关者和建模者之间的互动沟通,这是完善现有生态系统模型和分析以供管理使用的关键。

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(5)【渔业管理】以科学为基础的渔业管理运作的综合框架:使用现有最佳科学的检查清单

[Fishery Management] A comprehensive framework for operating science-based fisheries management: A checklist for using the best available science

在这项研究中,作者进行了详尽的文献综述,并制定了一个框架,包括一套全面的标准和基于科学的渔业管理(SBFM)的操作原理和结构,以更好地将现有最佳科学(BAS)纳入渔业政策。该框架为渔业科学的使用提供了一套新的模式,它被应用于渔业管理。它可以为建立、评估和改进植根于SBFM的管理系统提供信息,并加强与SBFM相关的研究、交流和合作。

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其他资料 Other resources

【可持续发展】WBCSD更新完善可持续发展目标行业路线图
[Sustainable Development] WBCSD Updates and Refines SDG Industry Roadmap
报告/Report


【海洋生态】海洋生态修复技术指南(试行)
[Ocean Ecosystem] Technical guidelines for marine ecological restoration
报告/Report


【蓝色经济】美国海洋经济数据
[Blue Economy] Marine Economy Satellite Account, 2014-2019
数据/Data


活动 Events

>>预告 Upcoming Events

2021年8月26日 网络研讨会 为海洋和其他地区的气候行动而改变行为
2021.08.26 Webinar: Behavior Change for Climate Action for the Oceans and Beyond
详情/Detail


2021年10月04日-07日 可持续性周:《联合国气候变化框架公约》第26次缔约方大会倒计时
2021.10.04-07 Sustainability Week: Countdown to COP26 
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2021年10月9日-10日 2021年海洋欢乐日
2021.10.09-10 2021 Ocean Fun Day
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>>回顾 Recordings

2021年6月15日 《保护海洋:多少才够?全球海洋保护目标的历史讨论》报告发布会
2021.06.15 Protecting the Oceans: How Much is Enough? A Historical Discussion of Global Ocean Protection Goals Report Launch
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2021年7月15日 蓝色灯塔系列:大海洋保护
2021.07.15 Blue Beacon Series: Big Ocean Protection
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2021年7月15日 网络研讨会 建立有弹性的供应链:全面社会责任计划的案例
2021.07.15 Webinar: Building Resilient Supply Chains: The Case for Comprehensive Social Responsibility Programs
详情/Detail


>>其他 Others

本快讯两周更新一期,往期内容可以查看这里。如果您在快讯内容或形式上有任何意见或建议,欢迎发邮件至ocean@ghub.org告诉我们,也欢迎您将《蓝色脉搏》推荐给同事和朋友

我们正在跟踪新冠疫情导致的海洋相关国际会议安排的变动,最新的信息在这里

感谢实习同事李如意对本期快讯的贡献


题图:[题注]海洋中的珊瑚礁,SEVENSEAS Media | 制