Issue 18 | Blue Pulse: Marine Conservation Bulletin

日期:

China published its first White Paper on Distant Water Fishing Compliance, and announced by the Tristan da Cunha government, 90 percent of the waters around the island chain will become a “no-take zone”.

导语 Introduction

关键点 1:

为打击非法捕鱼,提升国际渔业履约能力,实现渔业资源可持续发展,中国首次发布《远洋渔业履约白皮书》。这份文件不仅重申了中国打击IUU、提升远洋渔业管理的行动和决心,还有两个特别值得关注的亮点:一是提出了要关注气候变化与渔业可持续问题,二是把“海洋命运共同体”和“可持续发展目标14”相结合,这两点都显示出了超越渔业行业的战略视角。本期的每个栏目也都有收录关于打击非法捕鱼的消息。

Highlight 1:

In order to combat illegal fishing, enhance its performance in global fishery management and achieve sustainability in the fishing industry, China published its first White Paper on Distant Water Fishing Compliance. The paper reiterated China's actions and determination in combating IUU and improving the management of its distant water fishing operation. Besides, it is notable that the paper is (1) calling for the attention to the links between climate change and sustainability of fishing and (2) linking the 'Maritime community with a shared future' with SDG14. Such cross sectoral narratives demonstrate a strategic approach beyond the fishing industry. There are more information relating to fighting IUU available in other sections.  

关键点 2:

英属特里斯坦-达库尼亚群岛当地政府决定将群岛及周边海域设立为海洋保护区。该保护区面积超过68万平方公里,将成为世界上第四大完全保护的海洋保护区。这是令人振奋的消息!在海外领地管辖海域设立海洋保护区是英国“蓝带”计划的内容。同时也要看到,由于这些领地的海域人类利用强度本来不高,相对比较容易设立禁捕的海洋保护区,而在英国已经被重度利用的近海,大多数保护区是允许多重利用的。这显示出未来海洋保护区网络选划所面临的挑战:是选容易划的地方还是选重要的地方?

Highlight 2:

Announced by the Tristan da Cunha government, 90 percent of the waters around the island chain will become a “no-take zone”. It will be the fourth largest MPA in the world. This is an inspiring news! The new protected area will join the U.K.’s Blue Belt Programme. It is also notable that compared to the intensively used EEZ of the UK, it is easier to set up no-take marine reserves at remote islands. This represents a challenge for MPA site selection: lower hanging fruit or ecologically important area?


时讯

在南大西洋增设海洋保护区 | National Geographic Society 制

(1)2020年11月,英属特里斯坦-达库尼亚群岛当地政府决定将群岛及周边海域设立为海洋保护区。该保护区面积超过68万平方公里,将成为世界上第四大完全保护的海洋保护区。岛屿周边90%海域将被设置为禁捕区。达库尼亚群岛海洋保护区将被纳入英国海外海洋保护区体系(近700万平方公里)。

THE WATERS AROUND one of the world’s most remote inhabited islands, in the middle of the South Atlantic Ocean, are set to become the fourth largest completely protected marine area in the world. Now, this four-island archipelago will be the site of a marine sanctuary that spans 265,347 square miles. Announced today by the Tristan da Cunha government, 90 percent of the waters around the island chain will become a “no-take zone”. The new protected area will join the U.K.’s Blue Belt Programme, which, as of today, safeguards 2.7 million square miles of marine ecosystems around the world.

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(2)为使国际社会充分了解中国远洋渔业管理原则立场、政策措施和履约成效,农业农村部首次发布远洋渔业履约白皮书。

For the first time, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA) published a white paper on the compliance of China's distant water fishery management in order to let the international community fully understand China's principled position, policy measures and compliance effectiveness.

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(3)在11月20日落幕的国际海事组织海洋环境保护委员会通过了《国际防止船舶造成污染公约》的修正案来削减船舶的温室气体排放。

IMO Environment Committee approves amendments to the MARPOL convention to cut ship GHG emissions 

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(4) 2020年11月,西北大西洋渔业委员会(NEAFC)第39届年会圆满闭幕。基于国际海洋考察理事会(ICES)最近的科学建议,委员会接受了新的渔业资源管理及养护措施,同时针对角鲨加强了渔业捕捞禁令,以提高其物种养护能力。此外,委员会进一步更新了电子上报系统,以增强渔业监测、控制和执法能力。

North-East Atlantic Fisheries Commission holds it 39th annual meeting: At the Annual Meeting, NEAFC adopted conservation and management measures for the year 2021 for a number of fish stocks on the basis of the latest scientific advice provided by the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). NEAFC also took a fishery measure focused solely on conservation by extending the current prohibition of fisheries directed at spurdog (picked dogfish). NEAFC agreed further elements of its Electronic Reporting System to enhance monitoring, control and enforcement.

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(5)北美三家机器人公司正在竞相研制新一代无人驾驶船只,有望辅助政府部门在海上识别非法捕捞行为。开发公司称一艘无人船只的价格仅为一艘巡逻船及雇佣船员总成本的十分之一,还拥有全年无休待命的能力。目前NOAA投入1270万美元资金,促进无人船只及无人机的开发使用。

A new generation of autonomous vessels is looking to catch illegal fishers in the act. In partnership with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW), these three robotics companies are racing to prove that uncrewed vessels are up to the task. Angus says, that price is one-tenth of the cost of a ship and crew time. “And you have the ability to deploy it 24/7,” she says. Agency wide, NOAA is investing US $12.7-million to increase its use of autonomous and remotely operated vessels, airplanes, and drones for science and enforcement.

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观点

锤头鲨,加拉帕戈斯群岛西北部 | DivePhoto.org,Greg Asner 摄

(1)Yolanda Kakabadse:”期待中国成为加拉帕戈斯海洋保护的合作伙伴,现在正是开启合作的独特时期。“

 Yolanda Kakabadse:“ My expectation is to have China as a conservation partner in the Galapagos-Caicos corridor.” While the proposal may seem audacious, Kakabadse believes now is a unique moment for action.”

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(2)Emma Witbooi等:“渔业领域涌现出的各种有组织犯罪行为,多年来令国际社会十分担忧。现如今这类犯罪行为的各种证据,及其对于全球经济、社会和环境的不利影响和潜在安全后果已经被大众所知。参考全球的有可能的实践案例,我们强调了一些实际的机会去解决这类问题。”

 Emma Witbooi et.al.:“ The threat of criminal activity in the fisheries sector has concerned the international community for a number of years. Anecdotal, scientific and example-based evidence of the various manifestations of organized crime in fisheries, its widespread adverse impacts on economies, societies and the environment globally and its potential security consequences is now publicly available. With reference to worldwide promising practices, we highlight practical opportunities for action to address the problem.”

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(3)Stelios Katsanevakis等:“在上百名来自26个国家和地区的科学家四年多的联系和探讨下,MarCons分析出推进欧洲和毗连海域海洋保护的挑战、机遇和障碍。为提高海洋保护规划的有效性,我们为政策制定者、海洋管理者和研究人员提出12项关键建议。”

Stelios Katsanevakis et.al.:“ By consolidating a large network of more than 100 scientists from 26 countries, and conducting a series of workshops over 4 years (2016–2020), MarCons analyzed challenges, opportunities and obstacles for advancing marine conservation in the European and contiguous seas. Here, we synthesize the major issues that emerged from this analysis and make 12 key recommendations for policy makers, marine managers, and researchers to increase the effectiveness of marine conservation planning.”

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(4)《经济学人》:“厄瓜多尔将自己描述成非法捕捞受害者的同时,事实上也在进行非法捕捞,包括对濒危物种的捕捞以及进入海洋保护区以及国家公园进行渔业作业。”

The Economist:" Ecuador portrays itself as a victim of illegal, unregulated and unreported (IUU) fishing.  In fact, its fishing industry is just as bad. They are involved in endangered species harvesting as well as MPA and national park illegal fishing."

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(5)刘新中:“一旦发现绝不容情,‘零容忍’,严惩不贷。非常欢迎媒体、环保组织、NGO、相关的政府和中国一起共同关注远洋渔业。我们不愿意看到一些人、组织、国家恶意的抹黑,这些出发点是不正确的。中国愿意跟大家共同分享我们的渔业做法。”

LIU Xinzhong:" China has "zero tolerance" and strict punishments for violations by distant water fishing vessels. To better conserve marine fisheries resources, China initiated fishing moratorium voluntarily in the high seas this year. We welcome media, environmental protection organizations, NGOs and relevant governments to join us in the field of distant water fishing. China is willing to share our fishing practices with you."

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学术

(1)【渔业管理】南极磷虾渔业在不利气候条件下对企鹅种群的影响:对渔业管理实践的影响

[Fisheries management] Antarctic krill fishery effects over penguin populations under adverse climate conditions: Implications for the management of fishing practices

南极半岛西部的快速气候变化正在降低其磷虾密度,近几十年来捕鱼活动的增加,可能对企鹅种群产生了协同效应。研究通过将捕鱼活动和南极洲气候变化指标(Southern Annular Mode)的数据与企鹅种群数据进行交叉分析,检验了这一假设。非繁殖期渔获量的增加可能会对帽带企鹅和巴布亚企鹅种群造成影响。渔获量和气候变化共同提高了种群负增长的概率:在冬季温暖和海冰较少的年份,渔获量非常高(与负的南环模式值有关)意味着下一年种群数量减少。目前南大洋的磷虾捕捞管理考虑的是一个武断且固定的、没有反映出气候变化影响下磷虾种群的变化的渔获量限制,因此在环境条件不利时会影响企鹅的种群。

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(2)【海洋生态】帽带企鹅(Pygoscelis antarctica)的全球种群评估

[Marine ecosystem] A global population assessment of the Chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica)

利用卫星图像、无人机图像和地面计数,研究对现存375个繁殖地的342万对帽带企鹅(Pygoscelis antarctica)进行了首次全面的全球种群评估。研究发现23个先前已知的帽带企鹅繁殖地已经消失或灭绝;发现了5个新的繁殖地,以及21个以前未曾报道过的繁殖地。在可以与20世纪80年代的历史计数进行比较的繁殖地中,45%的繁殖地种群数量可能或肯定下降,18%的繁殖地种群数量可能或肯定增加。

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(3)【划区管理】国家管辖范围以外区域与沿海水域之间的生态连接:维护发展中国家沿海社区的利益

[Area-based management] Ecological connectivity between the areas beyond national jurisdiction and coastal waters: Safeguarding interests of coastal communities in developing countries

研究将国家管辖范围以外的海域和海岸地区间的生态联通性确定为谈判过程中至关重要的因素,并从最不发达国家(LDCs)沿海人口的角度出发,应用几种方法确定一些优先保护的区域。首先,我们审查了证明ABNJ和沿海地区之间生态连接的科学证据,重点是最不发达国家。然后,我们利用海洋模型开发了一些指标和空间图,用于量化国家管辖范围以外区域(ABNJ)与海岸带的连接。我们发现,各国受ABNJ影响的程度差异很大。同样,并非所有的ABNJ区域对海岸地区的影响都是相同的。利用这种方法,我们根据其对最不发达国家沿海人口的潜在下游影响的强度,确定最迫切需要保护的ABNJ区域。我们认为,ABNJ捕鱼、工业化和污染的间接负面影响,通过海洋学、文化和生态连通性传递到发展中国家的海岸水域,应引起关注。

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(4)【渔业管理】实现跨界渔业的透明治理:太平洋金枪鱼转运案例

[Fisheries management] Toward transparent governance of transboundary fisheries: The case of Pacific tuna transshipment

研究通过案例分析来评估跨境渔业治理的透明度,评价中西太平洋(WCPO)的海上转运是否可追踪、可核实和合法。利用自动识别系统数据和来自区域和次区域的定性信息,研究发现即使在用各种数据进行三角测量之后,68%的观察到的潜在转运仍然没有得到证实。我们确定了改善WCPO海上转运的可追溯性和透明度的三个主要领域,并指出透明度最终受到的不是技术或行政限制,而是管理机构内部执行者和被执行目标之间的矛盾关系。为了确保现在和将来有效地养护和管理跨境鱼类种群,必须提高透明度,并重点关注阻碍透明度的根本动力。

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(5)【渔业管理】区域渔业管理:疫情下的线上决策

[Fisheries management] Regional fisheries management: Virtual decision making in a pandemic

全球性COVID-19疫情正在影响渔业部门,并给跨界渔业管理带来重大挑战。由于旅行禁令和边境关闭,区域组织无法举行面对面的会议。本评论概述了区域渔业管理组织和区域组织在全球疫情期间的会议程序。大多数组织已过渡到在线平台举行会议。这些在线会议给可持续渔业管理带来了重大挑战,例如对重要问题的讨论和谈判有限。因此,为了继续有效地开展工作,这些组织需要制定新的决策程序,以便在即将到来的未来更有弹性。

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其他资料 Other resources

【海洋宏观】国际海事组织:海洋环境保护委员会会议总结
[Ocean in general] International Maritime Organization: Marine Environment Protection Committee - meeting summaries
专栏/Column


【气候·海洋】海洋气候行动倡议路线图
[Climate · Ocean] Roadmap to Oceans and Climate Action Initiative
专栏/Column


【海产品】海产品2030报告,卷1-海产品的合作经营策略
[Seafood] Seafood2030 Report, Volume 1 – Collaborative Business Strategies in Seafood
报告/Report


【海洋宏观】致海洋规划者与管理者的最新新闻与资源
[Ocean in general] Latest News and Resources for Ocean Planners and Managers
专栏/Column


动Events

>>预告 Announcements

2020年12月01日 网络研讨会 为制定塑料管理准则做好准备(欧洲会议)
2020.12.01 Webinar Getting ready for the plastic stewardship guidelines (Europe session)
详情/Detail


2020年12月04日 网络研讨会 增加塑料垃圾的收集和回收:有哪些解决办法?
2020.12.04 Webinar Increasing the collection and recycling of plastic waste. What are the solutions?
详情/Detail


2020年12月16日 网络研讨会 现在是2021年了吗?企业对海产品合法性和人权的尽职调查:我们的现状和未来
2020.12.16 Webinar Is it 2021 yet?! Corporate Due Diligence on Seafood Legality and Human Rights - Where We Are and What’s to Come
详情/Detail


>>回顾 Recordings

2020年11月16日 网络研讨会 支持政府对渔业管理的投资
2020.11.16 Webinar Supporting Government Investment in Fisheries Management
详情/Detail


2020年11月16日 网络研讨会 支持行业对健康工人和社区的投资
2020.11.16 Webinar Supporting Industry Investment in Healthy Workers and Communities
详情/Detail


2020年11月16日 网络研讨会 确保合法的海产品贸易 :产业与政府协同作用
2020.11.16 Webinar Ensuring Legal Seafood Trade – Industry-Government Synergies
详情/Detail


2020年11月16日 网络研讨会  通过实施渔业改革法提高日本国内海产品的可持续发展能力
2020.11.16 Webinar Improving Japan’s Domestic Seafood Sustainability Through the Implementation of Fishery Reform Law
详情/Detail


>>其他 Others

本简报两周更新一期,往期内容可以查看这里。 如果您在简报内容或形式上有任何意见或建议,欢迎发邮件至ocean@ghub.org告诉我们,也欢迎您将《蓝色脉搏》推荐给同事和朋友

我们正在跟踪新冠疫情导致的海洋相关国际会议安排的变动,最新的信息在这里


题图:太平洋中的绿海龟,Rhett A. Butler | 摄。