Issue 28 | Blue Pulse: Marine Conservation Bulletin

日期:

This issue focused on a wide range of topics, including gender bias in marine science and conservation, Oscar’s Best Documentary My Octopus Teacher, and the connections between Mars and deep-sea exploration. Additionally, in the Academics section, we included a paper on the effectiveness of partially-protected Marine Protected Areas.

导语 Introduction

关键点一

本期内容的一个特点是“跨界”。众所周知海洋是一个跨学科的议题,但是本期中有些内容的脑洞依然让人眼前一亮:一篇是“解读”版块中伍兹霍尔海洋研究所将探索火星的技术运用于深海探测的文章,另一篇是“学术”板块中讨论海洋科学和保护领域的性别偏见的论文。让人仰望星空的同时也不忘存在于身边的社会问题。

Highlight 1

One of the features of this issue is the 'crossover' aspect. The oceans are known to be an interdisciplinary subject, but some of the content in this issue is still very much fascinating: one article in the 'Interpretations' section on the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution's application of technology from the exploration of Mars to deep-sea exploration; the other is a paper in the "Academic" section discussing gender bias in marine science and conservation. When we look into the skies we shall not forget the social issues around us.

关键点二

“如何优先选划海洋保护区来实现人类短期利益和长期利益的平衡?”是全球海洋保护的灵魂之问。近十年来在偏远海域的大型甚至超大型海洋保护区的建设进展很快,也有声音批评说这样的保护是避重就轻。本期“解读”板块里中外对话的文章继续了这一讨论。文章认为要实现粮食安全、生物多样性和气候保护的三重目标,需要在人口密集的沿海区域设立严格的海洋保护区。海洋保护区的有效性在本期也得到了不少讨论。

Highlight 2

The question of how to prioritize marine protected areas to achieve a balance between short-term and long-term human interests is the million-dollar question of global marine conservation. While the last decade has seen rapid progress in the construction of large and even mega-marine protected areas in remote waters, there have also been criticisms that such protection is avoidance of priorities. This discussion is continued in an article in the China-China Dialogue section of this issue. The article argues that achieving the triple objectives of food security, biodiversity, and climate protection requires strict marine protected areas in densely populated coastal areas. The effectiveness of MPA is also intensively discussed in this issue.


时讯 News

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             美国华盛顿州立法禁止海底采矿 | 皮尤基慈善信托金会 制

(1)中国正在通过增加对本土的海产品消费来降低对进口海产品的依赖。

Due to disruptions to national distribution channels, fears over COVID-19 spreading via imported seafood, and aggressive political posturing on the global stage, China is replacing a dependency on imported seafoods with local alternatives.

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(2)美国华盛顿州长英斯利签署法令,全面禁止在本州海岸线外3海里范围内的海底进行对于贵重金属,富含金属的沙子,和宝石的开采。

Governor Inslee signed bill today prohibiting seabed mining for hard minerals, including precious metals, metal-rich sands, and gemstones, within 3 miles of Washington shores.

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(3) 美国和欧盟将进一步推动提案中的南极海洋保护区的建设。

US, EU to push harder for proposed Antarctic marine protected areas.

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(4) 2021年自然资源监测工作启动 |中国自然资源部

The 2021 Plans of Monitoring Natural Resources Officially Started, Says Ministry of Natural Resources of the People's Republic of China

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观点 Perspectives

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当气温上升和冰雪融化时,更多的淡水流向海洋,海水变暖体积膨胀
Shutterstock 摄

(1) Rick Stafford 和 Peter Jones:“塑料污染提供了一个‘廉价的真相’,转移了人们对气候变化等更严重环境问题的关注。”

Rick Stafford and Peter Jones:" we argue plastic pollution  provides a “convenient truth” that distracts from addressing the real environmental threats such as climate change."

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(2) Emily Petsko:“尽管鱼类含有对人类健康至关重要的微量营养素,但是其在解决维生素和矿物质缺乏上的作用常常被忽视了。

Emily Petsko: “Despite being packed with important micronutrients that are vital to human health, fish are too often overlooked as a solution to "hidden hunger".

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(3) Justin Catanoso:“现在对气候变化的行动承诺必须得到有效的执行,并且辅以透明的报告和准确的碳核算。”

Justin Catanoso: “Today's commitments (on climate change) must be followed with effective implementation and with transparent reporting and accurate carbon accounting"

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(4)美国海洋暨大气总署:”无人机很重要,因为它为调查野生种群提供了一种安全且有效的方式。”

NOAA:" Drones is important because the new technology provides a safe and efficient way to survey wild populations."

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解读 Interpretations

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法国渔船在泽西岛沿岸展开抗议
Sameer AI Doumy/AFP 摄

(1) The Local: 英法在泽西岛关于后脱欧时代捕鱼许可证的争执

泽西岛争端是泽西岛政府和法国渔民之间关于法国渔船在泽西岛领海内捕鱼许可的争端。法国渔民对捕鱼权分配的不一致感到愤怒,同时,一些人指出,在英国脱欧后,对未来使用英国水域的不确定性感到担忧。

Jersey dispute is a dispute between the Government of Jersey and French fishermen about the licensing of French fishing boats to fish in Jersey's territorial waters. French fishermen are angry about the inconsistent of fishing authorizations, and some of them worry about the uncertain future access to the UK waters after Brexit.

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(2) 尚嫣然等:新时期陆海统筹的技术难点、 理论框架体系与实践探索

文章从理论和实践两个层面对陆海统筹理论进行了梳理与研究,强调陆海统筹的理论内涵、技术框架和实现路径,选取具有代表性的沿海城市作为案例,总结了陆海统筹实战经验。

The article discussed and studied the theory of land-based integration from theoretical and practical perspectives, focusing on the theoretical contexts, technical framework, and realization of the theory. It also selected representative coastal cities as the case studies, summarizing the real-life experience of land-sea integration.

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(3) 中外海洋对话:气候变化新对策:保护人口稠密的沿海地区

新的海洋保护方针可以大幅削减全球碳排放,同时增加渔获量。但专家们提醒,在孟加拉湾和阿拉伯海实施这一方法面临一些挑战。

Radical new approach could slash global carbon emissions while increasing fish catch, but experts flag implementation challenges in Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea.

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(4) 开普敦大学:解密奥斯卡获奖纪录片《我的章鱼老师》背后的科学和拍摄过程。

《我的章鱼老师》的制片人克雷格-福斯特和他的科学指导,开普敦大学的两位海洋生物学家,揭示了如何运用科学,例如科学知识、事实核查,以及更重要的是基于科学的思考和的讨论,对影片的拍摄做出贡献。

My Octopus Teacher  film-maker Craig Foster and his marine tracking mentors, two University of Cape Town marine biologists, revealed how science, for example, scientific knowledge, fact-checking and more importantly, scientific-based thinking and scientifically informed discussions, have contributed to the filming.

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(5)中国水产网 观察|中国水产品总量凭什么可以连续32年保持世界第一?

新中国成立以来中国渔业取得了一系列傲人数据:2020年中国水产品总量达6545万吨,是1949年的145倍,连续32年位居世界第一。本文回顾并探索了具有中国特色的渔业发展道路。

Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, China's fishery industry has achieved a series of proud numbers: the total volume of Chinese fishery products reached 65.45 million tons in 2020, 145 times more than in 1949. Moreover, for 32 consecutive years it has been ranked first in the world in terms of the total volume of products. This article reviewed and explored the development path of Chinese fisheries.

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(6) 伍兹霍尔海洋研究所:探索火星的技术也可运用于深海探测

太空和深海都缺乏卫星传感器群导致传统的GPS系统难以运作。在火星探测器毅力号上成功运用的TRN(Terrain Relative Navigation 地形相对导航)技术也许是未来深海探索的理想解决方案。

Space and the deep ocean both lack the constellations of sensors that make traditional GPS systems hard to use. TRN (Terrain Relative Navigation) technology, which used in the Mars rover Perseverance, could be an ideal solution for deep-sea exploration.

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(7) Professor Sam Purkis:专家答疑:当一片珊瑚死去的时候会发生什么?

迈阿密大学教授Sam Purkis解释了气候变化对查戈斯群岛的影响以及目睹珊瑚礁死亡的感受。

Professor Sam Purkis of Miami University explained the effect of climate change on the Chagos Archipelago and what it feels like to witness to death of a reef.

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学术 Academics

(1) 【气候与海洋】针对海洋科学和保育领域持续的性别偏见应该迅速采取行动来促进平等

[Climate & Ocean] Persistent gender bias in marine science and conservation calls for action to achieve equity

在世界范围内,性别平等和女权运动已经受到了广泛关注。而在海洋科学和保护领域中女性研究者的比例依然不高。研究显示,全世界大多数的科学家已经意识到了这种性别偏见。这种偏见也许会阻碍我们有效地解决与环境保护的有关问题。更公正的评价体系和更加平衡的工作-生活关系将有助于促进平等。

阅读/Read


(2)【海洋生态】大尺度的干预措施可能延缓大堡礁的衰退

[Ocean Ecosystem] Large-scale interventions may delay decline of the Great Barrier Reef

本文通过系统建模全面的评估了针对大堡礁的各种干预措施的效果。模型考虑了多种影响珊瑚群的因素,包括棘冠海星,热带飓风、洪水、海洋热浪和海洋酸化。干预措施包括控制海星的繁殖,太阳辐射,以及引进更耐热的珊瑚品种。结果显示有效的干预措施能为解决气候变化等问题争取至少10到20年的时间。

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(3)【渔业管理】完全禁捕的海洋保护区比渔具限制更有利于珊瑚礁渔场长期渔获的稳定

[Fishery Management]  Marine reserve more sustainable than gear restriction in maintaining long-term coral reef fisheries yields

研究记录了肯尼亚两个县内多个捕鱼点长达24年的捕鱼量,以此来比较不同的渔业管理政策(将30%的水域设为禁捕区vs.渔具的限制)的长期影响。结果显示,前者的人均日渔获量增长速度比后者快了25倍。除此以外,研究也为将全球30%的海洋设为禁捕区提供了证据支持。

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(4)【海洋生态】对蓝碳生态系统中微塑料富集的新认识:来自南中国海沿岸海草丛和红树林的证据

[Ocean Ecosystem] New Insights into the Microplastic Enrichment in the Blue Carbon Ecosystem: Evidence from Seagrass Meadows and Mangrove Forests in Coastal South China Sea

海草和红树林是很多海洋动物的栖息地。研究显示,这些植物不光吸引动物,同时也会吸收微塑料。因为被红树林和海草吸收的微塑料极难排除,研究人员分析了海草和红树林的微塑料捕集效应进行了评估。

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(5)【海洋生态】除了温度,光照也会影响珊瑚的白化

[Ocean Ecosystem] Light, in addition to ocean temperature, plays role in coral bleaching

通常认为温度是珊瑚白化的主要作用,这项研究揭示除了温度以外,光照也会影响珊瑚的白化。海水温度上升时,当研究人员用遮蔽物遮住部分珊瑚时,与珊瑚共生的藻类的光合作用产量大大提高。这显示光照对珊瑚的健康产生了巨大影响。

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(6)【划区管理】评估部分保护(允许利用)的海洋保护区的社会和生态效益

[Area-based Management] Evaluating the social and ecological effectiveness of partially protected marine areas

文章评估了南澳大利亚沿岸19处开放水域,18个部分保护和19个完全保护的海洋保护区的社会认知和生态价值。通过进行采访,实地观测,水下评估,和数据分析,研究人员发现和开放水域相比,仅受到部分保护的海洋保护区没有体现出显著的社会和生态的效益。文章警告,部分保护的海洋保护区造成了一种保护的假象,消耗了珍贵的保护资源,却只产生了极少甚至近乎于零的社会-生态效益。

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(7)【渔业管理】禁止拖网捕捞后热带海洋底栖生物的恢复揭示了非生物性和生物性变化之间的联系

[Fishery Management] Recovery of tropical marine benthos after a trawl ban demonstrates linkage between abiotic and biotic changes

2012年香港政府禁止了拖网捕捞。一项来自香港大学的研究展示了在禁令生效两年半后,沉积物中的有机物含量有所提高,水中悬浮的固体数量减少,底栖生物的数量、多样性都有增加。因此,研究者认为禁止拖网捕捞将有助于保护热带沿海地区的生物多样性。

阅读/Read


其他资料 Other resources

【渔业】海洋和渔业中的水生污染物
[Fishing Industry] Aquatic pollutants in oceans and fisheries
报告/Report


【渔业】今天的监测是为了明日的可持续性 |NOAA的可持续性渔业管理
[Fishing Industry] Monitoring Today for a Sustainable Tomorrow |Sustainable Fishing by NOAA
播客/Podcast

 
【渔业】海鲜2030:问题简报,第三卷:未来的海鲜
Seafood2030 Issue Brief, Volume 3: Designing the Future of Seafood
报告/Report


【渔业】故事地图: 技术、监测和可持续渔业
[Fishing Industry] Story map: Technology, Monitoring, and Sustainable Fisheries
故事地图/Story Map


【海洋】联合国教科文组织《全球海洋科学报告》(中译本)出版发行
[Ocean] UNESCO's Global Ocean Science Report (Chinese Edition) now available
报告/Report


【技术与工具】海洋塑料追踪APP:一个开放数据的大众科学运动
[Techs & Tools] Debris Tracker: An open data citizen scientist movement
小程序/APP


活动 Events

>>预告 Upcoming Events

2021年05月26日 网络研讨会 识别有价值的区域来进行保护:美国海洋生物多样性和知识的差距分析
2021.05.26 Webinar: Identifying Important Areas for Conservation: A Gap Analysis of US Marine Biodiversity Protection and Knowledge 
详情/Detail


2021年06月04日-06月06日 会讯|2021年6月4-6日 福建厦门:“面向新时代的生态学”研讨会(第一轮)
2021.06.04-2021.06.06 Conference | June 4- June 6, 2021 Xiamen, Fujian: "Ecology in the New Era" Workshop (1st round)
详情/Detail


2021年06月22日 PescaData小程序:为个体渔民提供一个更公平的数字经济环境
2021.06.22 The PescaData app: Mobilizing knowledge and creating a more just digital economy for small-scale fishers
详情/Detail


>>回顾 Recordings

2020年07月15日 别走极端:加州海洋保护区制定过程中的经验故事
2020.7.15 Beyond Polarization: Learning from the Unlikely Story of California's Marine Protected Areas
详情/Detail


2020年09月09日新冠疫情对沿海和海洋旅游业的影响
2020.09.09 The impacts of COVID-19 on coastal and marine tourism
详情/Detail


2021年03月03日 网络研讨会 用3D技术来规划对于海洋的使用
2021.03.03 Webinar Planning Ocean Uses in 3D
详情/Detail


2021年03月11日 网络研讨会 如何引导海洋保护区使用者的行为:为什么方法的多样性是MPA治理的关键?
2021.03.11 Webinar Steering the behavior of MPA users: Why diversity of approaches is the key to MPA governance
详情/Detail


2021年04月15日 网络研讨会 欧盟海事局 海洋公民科学:趋势和前沿问题
2021.04.15 Emb Science Webinar - Marine Citizen Science: Trends and Frontier Issues
详情/Detail


>>其他 Others

本快讯两周更新一期,往期内容可以查看这里。如果您在快讯内容或形式上有任何意见或建议,欢迎发邮件至ocean@ghub.org告诉我们,也欢迎您将《蓝色脉搏》推荐给同事和朋友

我们正在跟踪新冠疫情导致的海洋相关国际会议安排的变动,最新的信息在这里

感谢实习同事章学磊对本期快讯的贡献

题图:华盛顿州立法禁止海底采矿 | 皮尤基金会 制