第31期 | 蓝色脉搏·海洋生命共同体速递

日期:

当您看到这期《蓝色脉搏》的时候,特别部长级会议已经落幕,希望能看到有积极的信号释放出来。事实上,渔业补贴的改革可以为填补“学术”版块里《为可持续海洋经济融资》一文中提到的资金缺口发挥巨大的作用,让我们一起期待。

导语 Introduction

关键点一

近年来,气候变化与海洋的关系得到了越来越多的讨论,但是从来没有一副图像能像刚刚在墨西哥湾拍到的视频这样震撼人心:天然气管道在海底裂开,熊熊燃烧的火焰在大海中央睁开索伦之眼,海水中翻腾的烈焰超越了所有魔幻电影中地狱特效。在上个世纪八十年代末,一系列环境灾难曾经“适时”地为《关于环境保护的南极条约议定书》提供了舞台。希望这次事故的警示不要被浪费了。

Highlight 1

The climate change-ocean nexus has been increasingly discussed in recent years, but never has there been a more powerful image than the one just captured in the Gulf of Mexico: a gas pipeline cracking at the bottom of the sea, a blazing fire opening the eye of Sauron in the middle of the ocean, the sea churning with flames that surpass all the special effects of hell in fantasy movies. At the end of the 1980s, a series of environmental disasters provided the “timely” stage for the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty. Let’s hope that the warning from this accident is not wasted.

关键点二

计划去年结束的WTO的渔业补贴谈判被拖到了今年。在“观点”版块,有一位在环保组织工作多年的老专家回顾了自己20年来追踪此项谈判的经历,对7月15日WTO特别部长级会议的作用表示了期待。渔业补贴研究的专家苏迈拉教授则期望中美可以合作来推动此项谈判。当您看到这期《蓝色脉搏》的时候,特别部长级会议已经落幕,希望能看到有积极的信号释放出来。事实上,渔业补贴的改革可以为填补“学术”版块里《为可持续海洋经济融资》一文中提到的资金缺口发挥巨大的作用,让我们一起期待。

Highlight 2

The WTO negotiations on ending harmful fisheries subsidies, scheduled to end last year, have been delayed until this year. In the “Perspectives” section, a senior expert from the civil society reviews his 20 years of experience in following this negotiation and expresses his expectations for the role of the WTO Special Ministerial Meeting on 15 July. Professor Sumaila, an expert on fisheries subsidies, hopes that the US and China can work together to advance the negotiations. By the time you read this issue of Blue Pulse, the Special Ministerial Meeting will have come to an end and hopefully there will be positive signals coming out. Indeed, reform of fisheries subsidies could greatly help fill the funding gap mentioned in the paper Financing a Sustainable Ocean Economy in the Academics section. Let’s look forward to that.


时讯 News

墨西哥湾大海中的索伦之眼 | 新京报 摄

(1)7月2日,墨西哥湾海面因天然气泄漏爆炸起火,尚不清楚事故是否造成海洋污染。报道称,该公司过去多次发生重大生产事故,此次事故原因仍待进一步调查。

A natural gas leak caught fire in the Gulf of Mexico, and it’s not clear if the incident caused Marine contamination. The company has suffered several major production accidents in the past and the cause of the accident is still under investigation, according to the report.

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(2)联合国大会举办了推进SDG 14的高级别会议。会议上的发言将海洋行动与新冠疫情的可持续复苏联系起来,向低碳和资源节能型绿色经济的过渡需要海洋领域的转型。

The UN General Assembly held a high-level event to build momentum for achieving SDG 14 (life below water). Speakers linked ocean action to a sustainable recovery from COVID-19, given that a transition to a low-carbon and resource-efficient green economy requires transformations in the ocean and seas.

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(3)在世界海洋日美国国家地理学会正式承认南大洋为独立的大洋。

On World Oceans Day, Nat Geo cartographers say the swift current circling Antarctica keeps the waters there distinct and worthy of their own name: the Southern Ocean.

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(4)6月13日,七国集团领导人华盛顿峰会闭幕,会议发布的联合声明承认在新冠肺炎大流行后,自然在重建全球经济方面的关键作用,并承诺将推动到2030年保护30%的地球。

WASHINGTON, June 13, 2021—Leaders of seven of the G7 met in Washington DC. In the joint statement, they recognized the critical role of nature in rebuilding the global economy in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic and committed to protecting 30% of the earth by 2030.

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(5)在巴黎举办的第43次南极条约协商会议于6月23日,即《南极条约》生效60周年之日通过了一项联合宣言,重申了南极条约协商国对该条约原则和目标的承诺。

The 43rd Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting, which France is hosting this year in Paris, adopted today, on June 23rd, the day of the 60th anniversary of the entry into force of the Antarctica Treaty, a declaration reaffirming the commitment of the Consultative Parties to the principles and objectives of this Treaty.

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观点 Perspectives

中国:稻田养鲤鱼已有千年历史 | FAO 摄

(1)董双林:“大多数RAS(循环水养殖系统)是高度人工化的系统,并不利用潜在的生态系统服务,如光合作用。这意味着这些系统受到较高的碳足迹和较高的成本的约束。要克服较高的运行成本和废物去除的障碍,RAS应与生态系统服务——通过水生植物的光合作用进行类似的营养物质的回收整合。”

Professor Shuanglin Dong: “Most RAS are highly artificial systems and do not take advantage of potential ecosystem services, such as photosynthesis. This means that these systems are constrained by higher carbon footprints and high costs. To overcome the barriers of higher operation costs and waste removal RAS (Recirculating Aquaculture System) should be integrated with ecosystem services – like nutrient recovery through photosynthesis of aquatic plants.”

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(2)Rémi Parmentier:“7月15日,世界贸易组织(WTO)总干事Ngozi Okonjo-Iwealaj将召集一次部长级特别会议,以支持WTO完成消除导致过度捕捞和产能过剩的渔业补贴的谈判。20年来,6次WTO部长级会议之后,世界仍在等待,鱼类种群持续萎缩,海洋陷入危机。”

Rémi Parmentier: “Hopes were raised when WTO (the World Trade Organization) Director General Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala called for a special ministerial meeting to be held on 15 July 2021 to reach agreement to fulfil the trade body’s mandate to eliminate fisheries subsidies that contribute to overfishing and overcapacity. 20 years and six WTO ministerial conferences later, the world is still waiting, fish stocks have continued to shrink, and the ocean is in crisis.” 

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(3)Doug McCauley:“公海上的MPAs (海洋保护区)就像水面下的储蓄账户。在一个MPA内部,受保护的物种(例如鱼类)茁壮成长。当这些健康的、不断扩张的种群从MPA的边界向外溢出,进入允许捕捞的海域,就像是存款产生的利息。因此,MPAs可以成为人类和生物多样性的双赢。”

Doug McCauley: “MPAs (Marine Protected Areas) on the high seas act like undersea savings accounts. Inside an MPA, protected populations—like fish—thrive and grow. And these healthy, expanding populations spill over beyond the boundaries of the MPA itself to areas where these fish can be harvested—like interest from the savings account. So MPAs become a win for both people and biodiversity.”

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(4)Rashid Sumaila:“中美两个最大的渔业补贴国之间展开合作是打破世贸组织谈判僵局的关键。多年来,谈判一直因为无法就发展中国家是否应被给予更多时间来退出补贴达成共识而陷入停滞。世贸组织允许其成员国自主申明自己的发展中国家地位,中国就是这么做的。中美若能开展合作并签署联合公报表明两国支持即将举行的部长级会议达成渔业补贴协议,这将有助于推动谈判进程。”

Rashid Sumaila: “Cooperation between the two largest fishery subsidy countries of China and the United States is the key to breaking the deadlock in the WTO negotiations.  Over the years, negotiations have been stalled because they cannot reach a consensus on whether developing countries should be given more time to withdraw subsidies.  The WTO allows its member states to independently declare their status as developing countries, which is what China does.  One of the actions to promote the negotiation process is China-US cooperation and the signing of a joint communiqué indicating that the two countries will support the upcoming ministerial meeting to reach a fishery subsidy agreement.”

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(5)联合国全球契约组织:“海洋不仅仅是气候变化的受害者——它也提供解决方案。基于海洋的气候解决方案可以将排放差距缩小21%,为在2050年之前把气温上升限制在1.5℃以内的目标做出贡献。海洋在减缓和适应气候变化方面的关键作用是今年COP26考虑的重要内容。在全球向零净经济转型的过程中,低碳海运和可持续海产品、近海可再生能源和基于自然的海洋解决方案是关键的推动力。”

United Nations Global Compact: “The ocean is not only a victim of climate change – it provides solutions too. Ocean-based climate solutions could reduce the emissions gap by up to 21% to keep temperature rise to 1.5 degrees C by 2050, and the ocean’s critical role in climate change mitigation and adaptation are integral to this year’s COP26 considerations. In the global transition to a net-zero economy, low-carbon maritime transport and sustainable seafood, offshore renewable energy and nature-based ocean solutions represent key enablers.”

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解读 Interpretations

一头雌性北大西洋露脊鲸(右)与另一头鲸游泳 | Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission 摄

(1)美联社卫生和科学部:北大西洋露脊鲸数量不断减少

发表在《当代生物学》杂志上的一项研究显示,濒危动物北大西洋露脊鲸年轻一代个体平均比20年前短约3英尺(1米)。科学家们认为人类是罪魁祸首。这项研究称,诸多压力因素,包括与渔具的摩擦、与船只的碰撞以及气候变化使它们为了捕食逐渐向北移动,都使这些大型鲸鱼的体型受到影响。

The younger generation of critically endangered North Atlantic right whales are on average about three feet (one meter) shorter than whales were 20 years ago, drone and aircraft data show in a study in journal Current Biology. Scientists say humans are to blame. Entanglements with fishing gear, collisions with ships and climate change moving their food supply north are combining to stress and shrink these large whales, the study says.

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(2)Distractify:死亡区已经存在了数百万年,但它们正在变得更糟

当海水中氧含量急剧下降,以致海洋生物无法生存时,就会出现死亡区。新的研究表明,自1950年以来,全球死亡区面积增加了近四倍。最近,科学家们发现,在过去的几百万年中,死亡区经常出现,它们的发生更多伴随着海水的暖化,正如我们目前正在经历的那样。

Dead zones occur when oxygen levels drop so low, that marine life is unable to survive. New research has shown dead zones have nearly quadrupled across the globe since 1950. Recently, scientists discovered that dead zones have been a regular occurrence within the last millions of years. They occur more often during significant warming events, like the one we’re currently experiencing.

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(3) 北京日报:牡蛎是滋养人类的“海中牛奶”

牡蛎曾被平民用来填饱肚子,之后因为过度捕捞和环境污染,数量锐减,一跃成为被高级餐厅追捧的海洋神秘食物。如今,随着人工养殖的逐渐成熟,牡蛎几乎遍布全世界的滨海地区,成为世界上第一大养殖贝类。

Oysters were once used by civilians to fill their stomachs. After that, due to overfishing and environmental pollution, the number of oysters decreased sharply and became the mysterious marine food sought after by high-level restaurants.  Now, with the gradual maturity of artificial farming, oysters are almost all over the world’s coastal areas, becoming the world’s largest aquaculture shellfish.

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(4)澳大利亚科学院:动物是最有可能使环境混乱最小化的生命形式

所有的生态系统(和经济)都是由动物驱动的,因为野生动物是生态系统机制的重要组成部分。动物和周围无机环境的存在是生态的基础,是动物稳定了初级生产者制造的自由剩余能量,否则生态系统会崩溃,动物无法生存。

All ecosystems (and economies) are animal-driven because wildlife is the mechanism that builds them. The existence of animals and the environment is part and parcel because it’s animals that stabilize the free surplus energy that primary producers make, otherwise the system crumbles and animals can’t exist.

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(5)Mongabay:阿根廷附近的“黑船”非法捕捞活动

每年,数百艘外国渔船在这里捕捞阿根廷短鳍鱿鱼(Illex argentinus)和阿根廷红虾(Pleoticus muelleri)等物种。许多船舶中都选择长时间关闭卫星跟踪系统,很可能是为了进入阿根廷专属经济区(EEZ)内非法捕鱼并且逃避检查。

Each year, hundreds of foreign-owned vessels are also traveling here to fish for species like Argentine shortfin squid (Illex argentinus) and Argentine red shrimp (Pleoticus muelleri). Many of these ships are turning off their satellite tracking systems for extended periods of time. The most likely reason is to avoid detection while fishing illegally within Argentina’s exclusive economic zone (EEZ).

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(6)自然资源部南海局:小小微生物“搅”动大海洋

自工业革命以来,海洋吸收了约48%的人为排放的二氧化碳,发挥着全球气候变化缓冲器的作用。海洋吸收大气中二氧化碳的已知机制主要有溶解度泵、碳酸盐泵、生物泵和微型生物碳泵。其中,前两者属于物理、化学方式,后两者为生物方式。

Since the industrial revolution, the ocean has absorbed about 48 % of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, playing a role of global climate change buffer.  The known mechanisms of carbon dioxide absorption by the ocean mainly include solubility pump, carbonate pump, biological pump and micro-biological carbon pump.  Among them, the first two are physical and chemical ways, the latter two are biological ones.

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学术 Academics

(1)【海洋生态】野生物种多样性的下降使人类膳食营养供应面临风险

[Ocean Ecosystem] Declining diversity of wild-caught species puts dietary nutrient supplies at risk

生物多样性丧失对人类营养物质供应的影响取决于补偿、营养动力学和功能多样性。当小型定居物种对大型迁徙物种的减少进行补偿时,脂肪酸供应增加,而锌和铁的供应减少。相反,当物种营养独特时,无法维持供应或营养供应风险的概率增加。研究结果表明,基于专门的法规和公共卫生政策,需要考虑生物多样性在维持全球20多亿依赖野生水产品的人群的营养利益方面的重要作用。

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(2)【渔业管理】自然灾害后日本小规模渔业中的个人主义和集体主义

[Fishery Management] Individualism and collectivism in Japanese small-scale fisheries after natural disasters

该研究考察了2011年受大东日本地震和海啸影响的渔业,发现灾难发生后渔民之间的相应合作不仅仅是“灾难乌托邦”,而是嵌入在渔业的社会生态背景中。社区中存在着一个将竞争性个人主义与集体主义连接起来的捕鱼共同体,它有助于灾后恢复的抗灾能力。

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(3)【划区管理】为珊瑚礁设计生存蓝图

[Area-based Management] Designing a blueprint for coral reef survival

在大力减缓气候变化的情况下,现有的养护措施,如海洋保护区和渔业管理模式不足以维持生态系统,还必须采取许多额外的和创新性的行动来提高珊瑚礁的复原力。在这篇文章中,研究人员基于有效性、准备性、共同利益和不惠益等原则提出了一套标准,评估一系列保护和行动是否可能有效。即使拥有最好的科学创新,拯救珊瑚礁也将需要一个资金充裕、设计精良、执行迅速的战略,在其他重大挑战的层面上得到来自政治和社会的承诺。

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(4)【气候与海洋】全球珊瑚礁生态系统呈现钙化减少和初级生产力增加的趋势

[Climate & Ocean] Global coral reef ecosystems exhibit declining calcification and increasing primary productivity

珊瑚生态系统钙化和有机生产力的估算,提供了对珊瑚礁状况的环境驱动和时间变化的观察。研究者利用生态系统尺度案例研究进行元分析,探讨了全球珊瑚礁钙化的时空趋势和驱动因素——水深和底栖钙化覆盖情况。珊瑚礁生态系统正在经历钙化和光合作用的基本代谢过程的转变,并可能在2054年左右成为全球范围内的净沉淀物溶解情况。

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(5)【海洋治理】管理海洋碳去除的潜在宣传和机遇

[Ocean Governance] Navigating Potential Hype and Opportunity in Governing Marine Carbon Removal

随着陆地二氧化碳清除(CDR)途径的技术和政治挑战日益显现,海洋可能成为气候治理中碳减排战略的新“蓝色前沿”。文章指出海洋碳减排的宣传和承诺,可以使碳经济持续发展,也可以使建模实践、政策制定、创新资助和法律治理的改革在海洋保护、经济和气候之间寻求共赢。

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(6) 【蓝色经济】为可持续的海洋经济融资

[Blue Economy] Financing a sustainable ocean economy

海洋支撑着可持续的经济,需要充足的融资工具来产生、投资、整合和核算金融资本,以实现持续的海洋健康和治理。然而,当前财政缺口较大,研究者识别了海洋经济可持续发展融资的关键障碍,并就如何缓解这些障碍,以激励公共部门和私营部门对一流的科学和管理进行投资,支持蓝色经济可持续发展提出了建议。

阅读/Read


其他资料 Other resources

【气候生多】IPBES- IPCC共同举办的生物多样性与气候变化工作坊报告
[Climate & Biodiversity] IPBES-IPCC Co-Sponsored Workshop Report on Biodiversity and Climate Change
报告/Report


【划区管理】世界需要更多方案去保护“海洋雨林”:政策简报
[Area-based Management] World Needs Alternatives to Protect Rainforests of the Sea: Policy Brief
报告/Report


【技术工具】世界上第一个全球部署的基于卫星的珊瑚礁监测系统
[Techs & Tools] World’s First Satellite-Based Coral Reef Monitoring System Deploys Globally, Paving the Way for Innovation Driven Conservation
地图/Maps


【技术工具】全球渔业观察海洋经理:加强海洋保护区管理的技术
[Techs & Tools] Global Fishing Watch Marine Manager: technology to strengthen the management of marine protected areas
视频/Videos


活动 Events

>>预告 Upcoming Events

2021年08月17日 网络研讨会 致力于达成全球塑料污染条约:过程和可能性
2021.08.17 Webinar Working towards a global plastic pollution treaty: Process and possibilities
详情/Detail


2021年8月17日-18日 “我们的海洋”2020会议——“我们的海洋”的地方到全球行动
2021.8.17-18 Our Ocean 2020 Conference-Local to Global Action for Our ocean
详情/Detail


>>回顾 Recordings

2021年06月24日 投资自然,青山亦金山-2021“生物多样性金融主流化” 系列政策对话
2021.06.24 Invest in Nature, Green is Gold-2021 Main Stream Biodiversity Finance Policy Dialogue
详情/Detail


2021年06月17日 EMB科学网络研讨会-为数字海洋维护原位海洋观测  
2021.06.17 EMB Science Webinar- Sustaining in Situ Ocean Observations for the Digital Ocean
详情/Detail


2021年6月23日 世界海洋峰会洞见时刻:跨价值链协作,最大限度地减少新兴市场的海洋塑料污染
2021.06.23 World Ocean Summit Insight Hour: Collaborating across the value chain to minimize marine plastic pollution in emerging markets
详情/Detail


>>其他 Others

本快讯两周更新一期,往期内容可以查看这里。如果您在快讯内容或形式上有任何意见或建议,欢迎发邮件至ocean@ghub.org告诉我们,也欢迎您将《蓝色脉搏》推荐给同事和朋友

我们正在跟踪新冠疫情导致的海洋相关国际会议安排的变动,最新的信息在这里

感谢实习同事章学磊、李如意对本期快讯的贡献


题图:墨西哥湾大海中的索伦之眼,新京报 | 制