第 48 期 | 蓝色脉搏·海洋生命共同体速递



导语 Introduction



Highlight 1

In this issue of Blue Pulse, we continue to look at the changes in the polar regions. In the News and Perspectives section, you can read about the unprecedented collapse of the region’s ice shelves due to anomalous warming in the East Antarctic, and the political factors arising from the Russo-Ukrainian war that have prevented Russia, which geographically occupies 50% of the Arctic coast, from participating in international-level Arctic Ocean pangaea research. The weakening of the natural and political stability of the Southern Arctic requires a strong response from the international community.



Highlight 2

How to marine protected areas effective? How can protected areas be planned for marine mammals? How can more resources be raised for marine protected areas? How can developing countries take leadership in marine conservation? This issue’s Academic section addresses these questions of interest to marine protected area researchers.

时讯 News

保险公司逐步终止对非法捕鱼船队的承保 | 环境公正基金会(EJF)制


Insurance company Hydor has ended its contract with a fleet of vessels that were discovered fishing illegally across the Atlantic by the Environmental Justice Foundation (EJF). Without insurance, the fleet operators are at risk of severe financial losses. Oceana, who worked with EJF to warn Hydor about its unwitting association with an illegal fleet, says that other insurers should follow suit to tighten the net and make illegal fishing untenable.


(2) 为进一步提升远洋渔业监管能力,稳定生产经营秩序,推进远洋渔业规范有序高质量发展,农业农村部研究制定了《远洋渔业“监管提升年”行动方案》,部署开展远洋渔业“监管提升年”行动。

The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of the People’s Republic of China published the Action Plan to Enhance Regulation of Distant Water Fisheries in 2022 to deploy regulatory actions in this area. This is to advance capacities in the regulation of distant water fisheries and sustain orders both in productions and operations, promoting a normative, orderly, and high-quality development in distant-water fisheries.



An area is long thought to be not hit much by climate change thus stable in East Antarctica. But an ice shelf the size of New York City in this area has collapsed captured by satellite images when recently temperatures in some spots in East Antarctica soared due to a freakish warm spell. This marked the first time in history that an ice shelf collapse took place in this area, which indicates that within the context of global warming,  the stability and resistance of East Antarctica have been overestimated.  



The International Seabed Authority (ISA) and the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) formalized their partnership to strengthen their mutual efforts on advancing deep-sea taxonomic standardization in the area.


观点 Perspectives

海洋保护会谈必须包括人权 | Mongabay 制

(1)Kimberley Brown:一封由世界各地环保人士、科学家和人权倡导者签署的公开信,写给3月于日内瓦参加联合国生物多样性公约工作组会议的缔约方代表。公开信呼吁将人权明确纳入正在形成的全球生物多样性目标,即在2030年前保护30%的土地和海洋(30×30)。签署者担心扩大专属海洋保护区将导致依靠渔业为生并参与海洋资源可持续利用的小型渔民被剥夺捕鱼权。

Kimberley Brown: An open letter signed by environmentalists, scientists and human rights advocates worldwide was addressed to government representatives attending CBD Geneva meetings in March. It called for the clear inclusion of human rights in the emerging global biodiversity goal to conserve 30% of land and ocean by 2030 (30×30).

Signatories fear the expansion of exclusive marine protected areas will lead to denied fishing access to small-scale fishers who rely on fisheries for their livelihood and partake in sustainable use of marine resources.


(2)Tim Lydon:气候变化下北冰洋海冰消失、冰川融化等正在造成全球影响。俄罗斯地理上占据了50%的全球北极海岸线,在北极科学研究中发挥着重要作用。然而由于俄乌战事和政治因素,俄罗斯科学家被禁止参加海上调查和科学会议等国际合作。这阻碍了为北极人民和整个世界提供重要信息的国际科学合作,即气候变化下对北冰洋的泛科学研究。

Tim Lydon: Disappearing sea ice, melting glaciers and other developments in Arctic regions due to climate change carry global consequeces. Russia, which controls 50 percent of the wolrd’s Arctic coastline, is a key partner in Arctic science. But due to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and its political backlash, Russian scientists are being barred from international collaborations, including at-sea surveys and scientific conferences. This is disrupting the international scientific collaborations, i.e. broad scientific study in Arctic regions, that provide vital information for Arctic peoples and the world at large.


(3)Cliff White:巴布亚新几内亚渔业协会主席Sylvester Pokajam声称其国家渔业局的指导行业监管的政策文件被外部利益集团 “劫持”,该政策文件对船队收取过高的价格,导致运营成本上升船队退出,并影响整个下游加工产业链。该政策正在削弱对改善和发展该国金枪鱼产业的努力。

Cliff White: Sylvester Pokajam, the president of Papua New Guinea’s Fishing Industry Association, is calling on his country’s government to reform its National Fisheries Authority’s (NFA) policy document, which guides its regulation of the sector. He disclaimed this policy adopted in 2013 had never been discussed or approved by the NFA from 2004 to 2014. According to him, the policy is dragging on efforts to improve and grow the country’s tuna industry.


(4)Shreya Dasgupta:现代死亡鲸鱼被发现在海滩时,政府通常会着手清除尸体。策略包括埋葬,将其运到垃圾填埋场或焚烧场,拖到海上,甚至个别情况引爆尸体。然而古代人类,人类一直有着利用搁浅鲸鱼的历史,甚至被视为是神灵给予的食物与恩赐。而在当下研究表明,海滩上搁浅死亡的鲸类动物可以提供环境效益,包括支持食腐动物群落,如北极熊和加州兀鹰等濒危物种。如何使这些死去的动物提供最高的环境效益,我们需要一些折衷的思考。

Shreya Dasgupta: According to a latest research, stranded and dead cetaceans on beaches may offer environmental benefits including supporting communities of scavengers, such as threatened species like polar bears and California condors.


解读 Interpretations

提高浮游生物丰度和种植海带林是海洋二氧化碳清除的两种方法,但关于它们是否可行以及推广它们应遵循何种行为准则仍存在疑问 | Daniel Poloha, Alamy 摄


Olive Heffernan: Moving the dial on ocean-based CO2 removal

最近来自美国的两份报告深入探讨了改造海洋来应对气候危机的现实问题,为基于海洋的二氧化碳移除技术寻路。其中,美国国家科学、工程和医学研究院(NASEM)发布的报告对基于海洋的二氧化碳移除法的可行性和成本进行了评估;国际非营利组织阿斯彭研究所(Aspen Institute)发布的另一份报告则呼吁为此类方法制定行为准则。

Two reports published in the US look seriously at the practicalities and responsibilities of altering the ocean to tackle the climate crisis, moving the dial on ocean-based CO2 removal. The US National Academies of Science, Technology and Medicine (NASEM) released a much-awaited report evaluating the feasibility and cost of alternative ocean-based CDR approaches. The same week, the international non-profit Aspen Institute released a separate report, calling for a code of conduct for such approaches.



Chun Zhang: China’s five-year plan for fishing focuses on aquaculture


In its 14th Five-Year Plan period, China is set to continue to increase aquaculture output while reining in wild catch. For the fishery sector as a whole, sustainability remains the goal.



Evan Lubofsky: With worsening storms and a COVID-era real estate boom, can the Outer Banks protect its shoreline?


The frequency and intensity of storm events around the Outer Banks are increasing due to climate change. Meanwhile, droves of people who can now work from wherever are flocking to the Outer Banks, which have seen record-breaking real estate sales over the past few years. This means shoreline protection in the area faces a double whammy.



American Geophysical Union: As oceans warm, marine cold spells are disappearing


Due to climate change, the oceans nowadays experience just 25% of the number of cold spell days they did in the 1980s, and cold spells are about 15% less intense. Weaker and fewer cold spells could mean refuges and recovery periods from marine heatwaves are disappearing.



Adelaide V. Dedden and Tracey L. Rogers: Climate change affects baleen whales through feeding patterns


Baleen whales (e.g., humpback and southern right whales) must feed adequately to build up energy reserves before migrating long distances, and thus prey abundance, or resource availability, affects their feeding patterns. Fluctuations in prey resource abundance are closely related to climate cycles (e.g., El Niño-Southern Oscillation). Due to climate change, scenario projections emphasize that future climate cycles are occurring with increasing frequency and intensity and may affect baleen whale populations through the above linkages.


学术 Academics


[Area-based management] Assessing the management effectiveness of China’s marine protected areas: Challenges and recommendations

人口的快速增长给脆弱的海洋生态系统带来了巨大的压力。海洋保护区(MPA)是应对这些挑战的一个广泛采用的管理工具,但其保护效果往往很难确定,尤其是在中国这样的发展中国家。管理效果评价(MEE)是评估MPA成果和确定关键影响因素的有效方法。然而,在过去20年中,针对中国的MPA只进行了有限的MEE,因此在很大程度上限制了其管理水平的提高。在这种情况下,我们对中国的MPA现状和现有的MEEs进行了全面回顾。我们发现,尽管中国MPA的数量和覆盖面有了很大的提高,但由于缺乏系统的规划、充足的资金、适当的分区、长期的监测和健全的法律,其保护效果可能受到影响。在中国评估MPA管理有效性的主要挑战包括缺乏一个标准化的框架、有限的调查数据、财政支持和公众参与。为了应对这些挑战,我们根据中国MPA的共同目标和现有的MEE框架制定了一个综合框架。我们还建议在制定的框架基础上增加如下内容:1. 在国家MPA建立长期监测试点;2. 从政府、社会资本和生态旅游方面为MEE、监测和能力建设提供持续的资金支持;3. 通过宣传、激励机制和建立委员会,促进公众参与MPA管理和评估。采纳以上建议可以加强适应性管理并提供新的见解。



[Area-based management] A new tool to evaluate, improve, and sustain marine protected area financing built on a comprehensive review of finance sources and instruments




[Fisheries management] China’s seafood imports— Not for domestic consumption?




 [Marine conservation] Fulfilling global marine commitments: lessons learned from Gabon




[Area-based management] The Important Marine Mammal Area Network: A Tool for Systematic Spatial Planning in Response to the Marine Mammal Habitat Conservation Crisis




[Blue economy] Ocean resource use: building the coastal blue economy

本研究利用新西兰和缅甸三角洲地区的案例,展示了促进从 “一切照旧”(BAU)到符合可持续发展目标(SDGs)和联合国“2021-2030年国际海洋科学促进可持续发展十年”的障碍、路径和行动。本研究的建议可以指导利益相关方和全球各国以公平和公正的方式,与直接依赖沿海生态系统的社区合作,实现海洋环境的可持续利用、养护和保护。


其他资料 Other resources


[Marine conservation] Ocean Encounters: Antarctica!



[Fisheries management] EU scheme to tackle illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing brings positive results and empowers nations



[Fisheries management] Research Report of Fishery Marine Debris in Shanghai



[Blue economy] Clean Oceans and the Blue Economy | Overview 2022


活动 Events

>>预告 Upcoming Events

(1)2022年6月9日 网络研讨会 海洋新奇指数:为海洋保护区管理探测创新条件

2022.6.9  Webinar  The ONo Index: Detecting novel ocean conditions for MPA management


(2)2022年4月22日 网络研讨会 深海采矿:让议题浮出水面

2022.4.22  Webinar  Deep Sea Mining: Bringing the Issues to the Surfaces


(3)2022年5月24-27日 会议 2021世界水产大会

2022.5.24-27  Conference  World Aquaculture 2021


>>回顾 Recordings

(1)2022年3月18-19日 会议 杜克大学 | 蓝色经济峰会

2022.3.18-19  Conference  Duke University | Blue Economy Summit


(2)2022年3月10日 网络研讨会 UNEP FI | 潜心探索:金融、海洋污染和沿海韧性

2022.3.10  Webinar  UNEP FI | Diving Deep: Finance, Ocean Pollution and Coastal Resilience


(3)2022年2月17日 网络研讨会 UNEP FI | 可持续蓝色金融:从指引到实践

2022.2.17  Webinar  UNEP FI | Sustainable Blue Finance: from Guidance to Practice


>>其他 Others


题图:海洋保护会谈必须包括人权 | Mongabay 制