Tuna fishing management should develop with the times, from reacting passively to being proactive and predictable, and improve management by advancing harvest strategy One of Europe’s biggest stakeholders Bolton Food Group is calling for more pre-agreed, science-based decisions and automatic mechanisms to manage tuna stocks in order to establish greater stability and predictability in the complicated supply chain, and also achieve a sustainable fishery. Additionally, the climate is changing much faster than fishing regulation is evolving, which influences the species and fishery. According to the impact of water temperature rise and fish stock fluctuation, the passive and slow dicision-making process before should be overthrown.
The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs and the Ministry of Finance of China released the Implementation Plan of Fisheries Development Subsidy Project, the funds are mainly used to support the construction of national marine ranches, national coastal fishing port economic zone, distant water fishing bases; upgrade modern fisheries equipment and infrastructure facilities, promote the green and circular development of fisheries, strengthen fisheries resources survey and conservation, strengthen the enhancement of international compliance capacity and other aspects of work.
A 6.67 hectares of continuous seagrass in Dongchudao Village, Rongcheng City, Weihai, Shandong Province, was insured with the first marine carbon sink index insurance in the country. This means that the insurance company will be responsible for compensating for the weakened carbon sink caused by specific marine environmental changes. This insurance can effectively address the risks of disasters, and provide funding for relief, post-disaster reconstruction, and maintenance. This is of pioneering significance to expand the use of marine resources and promote green financial innovation.
（3）随着大量关于海洋保护的纪录片和政府报告的问世，公众开始逐渐意识到海洋保护的迫切性和重要性，大公司和资金也开始认可在这一领域的投资。Pontos Aqua的创始人、蓝色海洋基金会和Vedra合伙人一起成立了Ocean 14，目的是刺激蓝色经济的发展，激发数以亿计的资金投入到这一领域。他们希望能够实现海洋资源的健康的可持续发展，海产品行业的数字化进程。
With the advent of high-quality documentaries and government reports on marine conservation, the public is becoming aware of the urgency and importance of marine conservation, and large companies and funds are beginning to recognize investments in this area. The founders of Pontos Aqua, the Blue Ocean Foundation, and Vedra Partners have joined together to create Ocean 14 with the goal of stimulating the development of a blue economy and inspiring hundreds of millions of capital into this sector. Their vision is to be able to achieve healthy and sustainable development of seafood and the digitalization of the seafood industry.
The Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC) has released two updates to its shrimp standard with the goal of expanding the coverage of its program. ASC’s shrimp standard is designed to ensure responsible farming and reduce the environmental and social impacts of the shrimp farming industry. The revised version of the shrimp standard introduces new requirements for recirculating water aquaculture system farms. In the meantime, four new genera of freshwater species were added to the standard. Thus, 99% of the world’s farmed shrimp are covered by the ASC shrimp standard.
（1）Chris Chase: 新西兰渔业公司Sealord提议将新西兰89%的海底山划为保护区，这意味着要将新西兰142个海底山中的127个都囊括进保护区的范畴。Sealord的首席执行官在新闻发布会中声称，保护海洋环境的同时，也可以保障就业、出口、食物供应的发展，公司的提案可以极大程度上保证食品安全、并促进了渔业的可持续发展。
New Zealand fishing company proposes that 89% of seamounts in New Zealand should be covered by conservation zones, which means that 127 of the country’s 142 seamounts would be placed into a conversation envelope. In a press release, Sealord’s CEO claimed that protecting the marine environment can go hand in hand with preserving jobs, exports and food supplies, and that the company’s proposal would go a long way toward ensuring food safety and sustainable development of the fishing industry.
（2）Shem Oirere: TMT 最新报告显示，为了逃避监管，挂用非洲国家船旗从事非法捕捞的渔船数量持续增加。报告认为，悬挂国旗的渔船必须受到非洲大陆政府的有力的监督和控制。同时，没能遵守法规的渔船应该被取消船旗，让人们不敢铤而走险。只有世界各地的专家和政府组织齐心协力，才能在全球范围内减少非法、未报告、和无管制（IUU）的捕鱼活动。
Shem Oirere: The latest report shows that the number of fishing vessels exploiting African flags to engage in illegal fishing in order to avoid surveillance continues keeps increasing. Flagged fishing vessels must be subject to strong oversight and control by Afircan continent’s governments. At the same time, fishing vessels that fail to comply with regulations should be de-flagged to deter people from taking the risk. A concerted effort by experts and government organizations is needed to reduce IUU fishing globally.
Han Qing： In order to provide a global population of nearly 10 billion with enough food in 2050, aquaculture will be playing an important role in food security in the future. In 2018, global aquaculture fish provided more than half of the world’s edible fish demand, and China accounted for more than 60% of global aquaculture, which is of great significance to ensure food security and reduce poverty. However, both freshwater and marine aquaculture are currently facing huge challenges in terms of resource and environmental constraints, and more technological innovation and policy support are urgently needed.
Jason Holland： Bolton Food Group, one of the largest stakeholders in the European tuna industry, is calling for more pre-agreed, science-based decisions and autonomous mechanisms to manage tuna stocks in order to acquire predictability in a complex supply chain. Currently, the lack of rules governing tuna fishing and tuna fishers is affecting the stability of the tuna industry. At the same time, it can hinder the sustainable development of the fishery.
（1）NOAA Fisheries: 可持续渔业，可持续海鲜
NOAA Fisheries: Sustainable Fisheries, Sustainable Seafood
Management of marine natural resources is the core mission of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). After decades of effort and investment, 80% of the stocks monitored by NOAA are in healthy condition and 92% are not overfished. Achieving such remarkable results has been neither easy nor permanent. Over the years, the number of rebuilt stocks have declined again to the point where rebuilding plans are needed. For NOAA, in order to achieve sustainable resource use, it is necessary to take full account of uncertainty, adjust management strategies, and adapt to environmental change.
China Dialogue: China tries to change ways of subsidies to protect marine fishery resources
Shandong Province and Fujian Province have announced that this year, they will start issuing “Subsidies of Marine Fishery Resources Conservation” to guide fishermen to comply with resource conservation measures, and will terminate the fuel subsidies that have lasted for 15 years. The new subsidies include two parts: the “Marine Seasonal Fishing Moratorium Subsidy” and the “Responsible Fishing Subsidy”, which help alleviate the decline in fishermen’s income due to reduced operating hours, and they echo the 14th Five Year Plan’s proposals to improve fisheries governance and optimize and adjust the offshore fisheries.
（3）Bangor Daily News: 气候变化比渔业法规的发展快得多
Bangor Daily News: The climate is changing much faster than fishing regulations are evolving
Officials overseeing fisheries in the Gulf of Maine and along the entire East Coast are taking a hard look at how fisheries regulations will need to evolve to keep up with the accelerated and unpredictable changes brought on by climate change. Fisheries experts believe that management measures that are built in the past may have to be reversed and rebuilt given the effects of rising water temperatures and fluctuating fish stocks. Fisheries management has always been complex and cumbersome, but as the pace of change accelerates and the risks to the current management system become greater, the reactive, slow decision-making process of the past will have to be abandoned.
Pew: Cousteau Legacy Continues With Southern Ocean Advocacy
环保倡导者兼电影制片人Ashlan Cousteau和Philippe Cousteau Jr. 在2月份访问了南极和智利，拍摄了许多关于南大洋的影像、图片资料，并对当地的动植物种群进行了调查。Cousteau的祖父和父亲是科学家与发明家，他继承了父辈的衣钵，以南极保护乃至海洋环境保护为己任。没有地区可以免受气候变化的影响，Cousteau认为，南大洋驱动着全球的洋流，是全球气候的调节器，因此保护南大洋则是防止气候恶化的重中之重。
Environmental advocates and filmmakers Ashlan Cousteau and Philippe Cousteau Jr. visited Antarctica and Chile in February to shoot images and pictures, and measures the local flora and fauna of the Southern Ocean. Cousteau’s grandfather and father were also great scientists and inventors, and he has followed in their footsteps, making Antarctic conservation and even marine environmental protection his mission. No region is immune to the effects of climate change. And Cousteau believes that the Southern Ocean drives global currents and is a regulator of global climate, so protecting it is a top priority to prevent climate deterioration.
China Dialogue: Blue Carbon Offset Project Takes Root
Blue carbon projects are the latest addition to climate finance, with countries and companies not only investing in blue carbon projects but also planning to integrate the carbon sequestered in the coastal zone and marine ecosystem restoration into their climate change programs. Projects to protect and restore blue carbon ecosystems are among the hottest carbon offsets available today. Selling blue carbon offset credits can channel funds to restoration projects in coastal zone ecosystems around the world, preventing carbon from being released into the atmosphere while absorbing more carbon.
[Area-based Management] Towards climate-smart, three-dimensional protected areas for biodiversity conservation in the high seas
In order to protect biodiversity, the researchers proposed a planning approach for the high seas. Using in-depth data from four areas, the scientists considered 12,932 vertebrates, invertebrates, and algal species, plus three climate scenarios, to develop this scenario. A resulting scenario is a low-risk option that covers only 6% of the high seas, which provides a nucleus for developing a complete network of high seas marine protected areas. The scenario maximizes biodiversity conservation, minimizes exposure of climate change, retains species within boundaries of protected areas, and reduces conflicts with fishing.
[Climate & Ocean] Avoiding ocean mass extinction from climate warming
According to the ecophysiological limits, as ocean temperatures increase and oxygen levels decrease, marine systems could experience the same catastrophic mass extinctions as in the past. Calibrated by the fossil record, the researchers quantified the risk of global and local ocean extinctions under different climate scenarios. According to the scientists’ calculations, if climate conditions continue to deteriorate, species losses over the next century could be comparable to those caused by humans over the past several thousand years. If we were able to effectively control greenhouse gas emissions, the risk of species mass extinction would be reduced by more than 70%.
[Blue Economy] Expanding ocean food production under climate change
Fisheries reform and offshore aquaculture are imperative to respond to the growing food needs of human society. In this study, researchers show that fisheries reform, continued advances in feed technology, and effective mariculture management have enormous benefits for maintaining per capita seafood. However, scientists have investigated and found that even climate-adapted fisheries reforms are not sufficient to maintain global per capita seafood production. Therefore, in addition to coordinated reforms in fisheries and offshore aquaculture, significant curbs on greenhouse gas emissions are needed. If these can be achieved simultaneously, mariculture has an incalculable potential.
[Techs & Tools ] Signature of climate-induced changes in seafood species served in restaurants
As ocean temperatures rise, the habitats of marine species also change accordingly. In the past, scientists have speculated that climate-induced changes in seafood availability would affect the entire seafood supply chain, but this speculation has rarely been proven. In this article, researchers investigate the impact of changing catches on the food they serve by studying an unconventional source of information – restaurant menus. The findings show that the average preferred temperature of seafood species on the menu is closely related to the observed pattern of average sea surface temperature and average temperature of the catch. This suggests that restaurant menus can be an important additional information for studying marine ecosystems and fisheries.
[Blue Economy] Welfare impact of climate change on capture fisheries in Vietnam
Vietnam’s coastal areas are endowed with ample fishery resources, and fisheries account for a significant part of the country’s agricultural products and GDP. Fisheries industry provide work for 3 million laborers in Vietnan. In the meanwhile, it also makes a significant contribution to ensuring the country’s food security and nutritional needs. However, due to climate change, Vietnam’s fish catches may shrink dramatically in the coming decades. The researchers note that many past studies have focused on increases or decreases in fish stocks, production and income, without understanding changes in the welfare of fishery producers and consumers. Instead, this study aims to identify welfare changes through a balanced analysis and a supportive approach.
[Ocean Ecosystem] Recovering wetland biogeomorphic feedbacks to restore the world’s biotic carbon hotspots
Biogeomorphic wetlands (peatlands, mangroves, salt marshes, and seagrass meadows) cover only 1% of Earth’s surface, but their high carbon sequestration rates and effective storage capacity per unit area allow them to store 20% of the global organic ecosystem carbon. The researchers explain that wetlands shape the landscape and amplify carbon storage through self-fostering feedback from “biogeomorphic feedback”. However, biogeomorphic wetlands around the world are declining at an average annual loss rate of around 1%, and the resulting carbon emissions and losses are enormous. The findings underscore the urgency to stop conservation ongoing losses through conservation ongoing losses and to reestablish landscape-forming feedback by restoring biogeomorphic wetlands as the world’s biological carbon hotspots.
其他资料 Other resources
New study: “Systems and tools for monitoring, evaluation, and revision of maritime spatial plans”
The latest updates on Maritime Spatial Plans in Germany
Green New Deal and the Blue Economy
The Blue Revolution – Hunting, Harvesting, and Farming Seafood in the Information Age
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（2）2022.6.6-9 工作坊 海洋空间规划工作坊
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（1）2022.4.21 网络研讨会 深海采矿、历史遗迹和渔业之间的联系
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（3）2022.5.5 网络研讨会 一堂给海洋保护区（MPA）管理人员的海洋治理课：东南亚和大西洋之间的经验交流
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题图：一只鲸鱼在南极半岛附近的南大洋上浮出水面呼吸空气 | Philippe Cousteau