第 33 期 | 蓝色脉搏·海洋生命共同体速递

日期:

近日发布的《气候变化2021:自然科学基础》阐释了气候变化对环境的影响。海洋作为地球生态系统的重要组成部分,也是全球气候治理领域关注的焦点。本期快讯介绍了气候变化的有关议题,能够为海洋治理和保护海洋生物提供经验和指导。

导语 Introduction

关键点

气候变化是本期关注的焦点之一。8月9日,政府间气候变化专门委员会(IPCC)发布了其第六次评估报告的物理科学部分。报告指出,在最低温室气体排放情境下,本世纪末全球平均气温与1850-1900年间的水平相比,非常有可能升高1℃-1.8℃(最佳估算1.4℃)。其他排放场景下,全球平均气温预计将在本世纪中叶突破1.5℃,并持续升高,最高升温幅度可能达到5.7℃。本期蓝色脉搏对于海洋管理和应对气候变化交叉议题多有涉及,气候变化如何影响了海洋生物?如何减小海上可再生能源对海洋生物的影响?如何进一步发挥海洋的固碳储碳功能?应对气候变化是否需要海底的矿产资源?IPCC的重要结论为这些讨论提供了最好的背景。

Highlight

Climate change is one of the focuses of this issue. on 9 August, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) released the physical science component of its Sixth Assessment Report. The report states that under the lowest greenhouse gas emissions scenario, global average temperatures at the end of the century are very likely to increase by 1°C-1.8°C (best estimate 1.4°C) compared to levels between 1850 and 1900. Other emissions scenarios are expected to see global mean temperatures exceed 1.5°C by mid-century and continue to rise, with a possible maximum warming of 5.7°C. This issue of Blue Pulse has included several articles related to the interconnections of ocean management and addressing climate change. How is climate change affecting marine life? How can the impact of offshore renewable energy on marine life be reduced? How can the ocean’s carbon sequestration and storage function be further exploited? Do we need the mineral resources of the seabed to address climate change? The key findings of the IPCC set the best stage for these discussions.


时讯 News

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一只将死的鸟蛤在水面上裂开 | Julie Barber 摄

(1)6月26日至28日,席卷普吉特海湾的创纪录的热浪和年度最低潮位同时出现。导致数以百万计的贻贝、蛤蜊、牡蛎、沙钱、藤壶、海星、玉螺等生物的死亡。

A record-shattering heat wave June 26-28 coincided with some of the year’s lowest tides on Puget Sound. The combination was lethal for millions of mussels, clams, oysters, sand dollars, barnacles, sea stars, moon snails, and other tideland creatures.

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(2)2021年6月28日至30日,G7 FSOI(七国集团海洋未来倡议)在线上举行了2021年工作组会议。来自加拿大、欧盟委员会、法国、德国、意大利、日本、英国和美国的代表共同商议了G7海洋联合行动的未来发展方向,并决定重点加强持续性的海洋观测系统。

The G7 FSOI (Future of the Seas and Oceans Initiative) held its 2021 Working Group meeting through a three-day series of virtual sessions hosted by the UK G7 Presidency from 28–30 June 2021.Delegations from Canada, the European Commission, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the UK and the US met to agree on the way forward with a set of joint G7 ocean actions aimed at strengthening the sustained ocean observing system.

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(3)全球鱿鱼行业的一些大公司已经联合起来,为阻止来自非法、未报告和无管制(IUU)的捕捞产品进入市场而共同努力。这些公司承诺通过改善全球鱿鱼供应链解决IUU鱿鱼捕捞问题,力求解决国内和国际市场鱿鱼产品的IUU问题。

Some of the biggest names in the global squid sector have joined forces to fight for the elimination of products sourced from illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing from entering the market. These companies have promised to address IUU squid fishing through global squid supply chains, seeking to rid domestic and international markets of IUU-tainted squid products.

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(4)目前山东、江苏、浙江等省已开始探索开展海洋牧场与海上风电融合的可能性,并取得了一定成效,但海上风电是否会对海洋牧场中渔业资源产生影响需要经过长期监测评估,目前还不具备从国家层面出台相关政策和规划的基础条件。

At present, Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and other provinces have begun to explore the possibility of marine pasture and offshore wind power integration, and has achieved certain results, but whether offshore wind power will have an impact on fishery resources in the marine pasture needs to be assessed after long-term monitoring, is not yet available from the national level to introduce relevant policies and planning the basic conditions.

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(5)近日,采矿公司DeepGreen的支持国——太平洋岛国瑙鲁通知国际海底管理局(ISA)有关开采深海矿产的计划,由此触发了国际海底管理局的”两年 “规则,给国际海底管理局快速通过深海采矿的法规形成了压力。如果这些法规没有在两年内最终达成一致,采矿作业将被允许根据已有的任何临时规则来进行。

The rush to mine the deep sea recently accelerated when the Pacific Island nation of Nauru, sponsoring country of mining company DeepGreen, triggered the so-called ‘two-year’ rule, notifying the International Seabed Authority (ISA) of plans to start mining the deep sea. The controversial move is intended to force the ISA to fast-track the adoption of regulations for deep-sea mining. If these regulations are not finalised agreed upon within two years, mining operations will be allowed to go ahead under any provisional regulations already in place.

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观点 Perspectives

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志愿潜水员清除海洋保护区内的蓑鲉 | Periklis Kleitou 摄

(1)Christopher Cvitanovic等:研究资助方可以发挥更大作用以支持海洋科研在政策和实践中的融入,从而促进依据科学的政策制定。然而,迄今为止,很少有研究能为研究资助方提供指导,帮助他们了解如何增加与被资助的研究人员和利益相关者的信息交流,特别是那些海洋相关的内容。

Christopher Cvitanovic et al.: Research funders can play an important role in supporting the integration of marine science into policy and practice to enable evidence-informed decision-making. However, to date, there is a paucity of guidance available to help research funders understand the specific actions they can take to support knowledge exchange among the researchers that they fund and relevant stakeholders, particularly within marine contexts. 

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(2)Jason Hall-Spencer:”海洋保护区在保护海底的生物多样性方面无疑是有益的,但保护区抵抗入侵物种扩散的能力较低。研究表明,公民参与在监测和管理蓑鲉(狮子鱼)方面可以发挥关键作用,但是否允许潜水员使用水肺设备清除这些鱼还需要谨慎考虑,并进行严格监管以避免非法捕捞。如果实施得当,清除活动可以保护选定地区免受蓑鲉的不利影响,同时有助于与当地社区建立丰富而深入的联系,加强企业和社会层面的责任和监督,并激发公众的环境意识。“

Jason Hall-Spencer: “Marine Protected Areas are undoubtedly beneficial in terms of biodiversity on the seabed, but they are also vulnerable to the spread of invasive species. Our ongoing research is showing the pivotal role citizens can play in monitoring and managing lionfish, but permitting divers to remove these fish using scuba gear will need to be applied with caution and strictly regulated to avoid illegal fishing. If implemented correctly, removal events could protect selected areas from the adverse effects of lionfish, while at the same time help to establish rich and deep links with local communities, strengthening responsibility and surveillance at corporate and social levels, and stimulating public environmental awareness.”

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(3)UNESCO:“在过去的五年里,大堡礁已经发生了三次大规模的珊瑚白化事件,自1995年以来,随着海洋温度的攀升,该片区大约失去了一半左右的珊瑚。由于气候变化导致了更多的极端天气,大堡礁还受到了几次飓风的袭击,而且以珊瑚为食的棘冠海星数量迅速增加。这是对国际社会和全人类的一个警告,我们的珊瑚生态系统正处于危险之中。”

UNESCO: “The reef has suffered three mass coral bleaching events in the past five years, by some measures losing half its corals since 1995 as ocean temperatures have climbed. It has also been battered by several cyclones, as climate change drives more extreme weather, and outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish which eat the coral. It’s a warning to the international community and all of humanity that the coral ecosystem is in danger.”

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(4)Maurice Estes Jr.等:海洋生物多样性是我们星球的一个基本特征,它取决于并同时影响着气候、水质和许多海洋参数变化。它也是生态系统服务的核心,可以决定任何地区的经济发展。我们需要强调海洋生物观测的必要性,为科学和保护管理提供信息,并支持蓝色经济。我们提出了十项建议,适用于目前的情况,以测量和预测作为经济监测工作之一的生物基本海洋变量(EOVs)。联合国海洋科学促进可持续发展十年计划(2021-2030年)提供了一个及时的机会来实施这些建议,以造福人类,并在2030年建立起3万亿美元的全球海洋经济。

Maurice Estes Jr. et al.: Marine biodiversity is a fundamental characteristic of our planet that depends on and influences climate, water quality, and many ocean state variables. It is also at the core of ecosystem services that can make or break economic development in any region. Our purpose is to highlight the need for marine biological observations to inform science and conservation management and to support the blue economy. We provide ten recommendations, applicable now, to measure and forecast biological Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs) as part of economic monitoring efforts. The UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021–2030) provides a timely opportunity to implement these recommendations to benefit humanity and enable the USD 3 trillion global ocean economy expected by 2030.

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(5)Georgina G. Gurney等:我们呼吁《生物多样性公约》缔约方和由政策制定者、科学家、从业者和捐助者组成的保护团体,在研究和使用保护区的同时,更多地研究和使用其他有效的区域保护措施(OECMs)。如果《生物多样性公约》缔约方忠实于公约的意图,即维持生物多样性而不是 “实现 “基于区域的目标,这一政策工具可以推动公平和有效的保护。但是,要实现其影响力,需要更多基础工作。

Georgina G. Gurney et al.: We call on the CBD parties and the conservation community of policymakers, scientists, practitioners and donors to study and use other effective area-based conservation measures (OECMs) more, alongside protected areas. This policy tool can advance equitable and effective conservation if CBD parties stay true to the convention’s intent to sustain biodiversity rather than ‘achieve’ area-based targets. But more groundwork must be laid to realize its potential.

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解读 Interpretations

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疫情期间爬上海岸的海龟 | Greg Basco 摄

(1)Hakai Magazine:疫情期间存在大规模的偷猎行为

Hakai Magazine: The Pandemic Poaching Pandemic

疫情爆发后,哥斯达黎加封锁了边界,与野生动物保护区和合法龟蛋采集相关的旅游收入急速下降。全国的失业率飙升至24%以上,偷猎率也随之攀升。绝望的人们开始偷猎海龟蛋和海龟肉,威胁了来之不易的保护成果。

When the COVID-19 pandemic hit and Costa Rica closed its borders, the flow of tourism dollars associated with the wildlife refuge and the legal turtle egg harvest suddenly dried up. Unemployment across the country skyrocketed to more than 24 percent, and rates of poaching climbed with it. Desperate people began poaching sea turtle eggs and meat, threatening hard-won conservation achievements.

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(2)玛莎葡萄园杂志:露脊鲸在提案建设海上风电场的海域活动增加

The Vineyard Gazette: Right Whales Increase Activity in Ocean Waters Slated for Offshore Wind Farms

由于在新英格兰南部海域一些大型的商业海上风能项目即将上马,而风电场的建设和运营难免牵扯海洋物种保护。当露脊鲸越来越频繁的出现在该地区时,该地区的发展如何对露脊鲸产生影响,仍然存在相当大的不确定性。海上风力开发可能会以各种方式影响鲸鱼,其中也包括水上交通的增加——这是导致露脊鲸死亡的主要原因之一,除此海洋噪音的增加和可能会影响浮游生物的数量栖息地的改变。

Since a number of large commercial offshore wind energy projects are proposed off southern New England, the construction and operation of wind farms are relevant to conserving the species. Considerable uncertainty still exists regarding how the development of the region could have an impact on right whales just as they are becoming more reliant on the region. Offshore wind development could impact the whales in a variety of ways, including an increase in vessel traffic — one of the leading causes of right whale deaths — as well as increased ocean noise and habitat alterations, potentially affecting plankton populations.

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(3)中国海洋发展研究中心:中国海洋治理体系的内部架构

Academy of Ocean of China: The Internal Structure of China’s Ocean Governance System

海洋强国是一个多元要素并存的“数学矩阵”,从制度上对其中的经济要素、政治要素和文化要素进行规定和布局,对于提升海洋治理能力至关重要。建设海洋强国,必从完善海洋治理体系入手。海洋强国不仅仅是一个地理概念,也不是一个单纯的经济概念,甚至也不是一个单纯的政治概念,它是一个以地理自然为基础,包含经济维度、政治维度和文化维度在内的海洋治理体系和制度文明概念。

A strong maritime power is a “mathematical matrix” with multiple elements coexisting, and it is crucial to improve ocean governance by providing and laying out the economic, political, and cultural elements in the system. To build a strong maritime power, we must start by improving the ocean governance system. It is not just a geographical concept, nor a simple economic concept, nor even a simple political concept, but a concept of ocean governance system and institutional civilization based on geography and nature, including economic, political, and cultural dimensions.

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(4)中国水产:我国深远海养殖发展现状与展望

Chinese Fisheries: China’s deep-sea aquaculture: development status and outlook

为减轻养殖对近岸海区的影响,拓展养殖空间,实现海水养殖业可持续发展,发展深远海养殖产业势在必行。目前,根据我国沿海海域水文特点和海水养殖基本情况,我国深远海养殖应为设置在离岸3海里以外、水深在25m~100m、无遮蔽的开放海域,以远程管控设施装备为保障、陆海补给系统为支持,对生态环境无负面影响的工业化海上养殖生产方式。

In order to reduce the impact of aquaculture on the near-shore sea area, expand the aquaculture space and realize the sustainable development of mariculture industry, it is imperative to develop deep-sea aquaculture industry. At present, according to the hydrological characteristics of China’s coastal waters and the basic situation of mariculture, China’s deep-sea aquaculture should be set up in the open sea beyond 3 nautical miles offshore, water depth in 25m-100m, without shade, safeguarded with remote control facilities and equipment, supported by land and sea supply system, and with no negative impact on the ecological environment.

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(5)中外对话海洋:海产企业是否能成为海洋管护者?

China Dialogue Ocean: Will seafood corporations act as ocean stewards?

管护不是一种固定状态,而是一个不断发展的过程。随着时间的推移,与管护相关的社会和生态议题越来越多,而且不太可能一成不变。然而管护工作还任重道远——约 34%的鱼类种群正以生物学上不可持续的程度遭到捕捞。在许多情况下,可持续渔业管理仍然是一个遥远的目标。还有一些情况下,提高透明度的新技术和新方法正在重新界定海产品行业将如何理解和减少其对海洋生态系统影响。

Stewardship is not an end goal, but rather an approach. As time passes, the list of social and ecological issues associated with stewardship has expanded, and it is unlikely to remain static. Yet much remains to be done – some 34% of fish stocks are being harvested at biologically unsustainable levels. In many cases, sustainable fisheries management is still a distant goal. In other cases, new technologies and approaches to transparency are redefining the boundaries of how the seafood industry can understand and lessen its footprint on marine ecosystems.

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(6)中外对话海洋:世贸组织距离达成渔业补贴协议再进一步

China Dialogue Ocean: WTO inches closer to agreement on harmful fishing subsidies

世贸组织谈判代表们的任务是取消对非法、不报告和无管制(IUU)捕捞的补贴,并禁止某些助长产能过剩和过度捕捞的补贴。原定达成协议的最后期限为2020 年,但是受到新冠肺炎疫情限制和美国总统大选影响,谈判被推迟。之后,各方曾计划在今年7月达成协议,但是又再次落空。三月被任命为世贸组织总干事的奥孔乔-伊韦阿拉(Okonjo-Iweala)现在的目标是在年底前达成协议。由于各方目前在其他问题上陷入僵局,能否达成这份协议将成为检验世贸组织公信力的一项重要考验。

Negotiators at the WTO had been tasked with eliminating subsidies for illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing and prohibiting certain subsidies that contribute to overcapacity and overfishing. 2020 had been set as a deadline to strike an agreement, but talks were delayed due to COVID-19 restrictions and the US presidential elections. A deadline was then set for this July, which was again missed. Now, Okonjo-Iweala, appointed as head of the WTO in March, aims to reach an agreement by year-end in what will be a key test for the organisation’s credibility, with members deadlocked on other fronts.

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学术 Academics

(1)【海洋生态】阿拉斯加沿岸流促进北冰洋西部小型浮游植物生长的机制 

[Ocean Ecosystem] Incursion of Alaska Coastal Water as a mechanism promoting small phytoplankton in the western Arctic Ocean

阿拉斯加沿岸流(ACW)抵达北冰洋,降低了陆架地区的叶绿素a的浓度,但有利于盆地地区浮游植物的生长,特别是小型原生绿藻和金藻的生长。营养状况的变化可能是其原因,因为在向北流动的过程中,ACW散失热量并从周围的冷水中获得营养。ACW将营养物质带入地下盆地层,这可能会有利于北冰洋西部小型浮游植物的生长。

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(2)【气候与海洋】 气候变化对墨西哥湾尤卡坦半岛的红章鱼适宜性和分布的影响:一种关联性的和机理性的方法 

[Climate & Ocean] Climate change effect on Octopus maya (Voss and Solís-Ramírez, 1966) suitability and distribution in the Yucatan Peninsula, Gulf of Mexico: A correlative and mechanistic approach

本研究预测了红章鱼(Octopus maya)的适宜性和分布,红章鱼是墨西哥尤卡坦半岛(YP)的特有商业物种。为此,本研究分别使用基于温度、盐度和代谢范围的关联性生态位模型(CNM)和机理性生态位模型(MNM)对2040-2050年,和2090-2100年两个十年进行了预测,以应对不同的气候变化情景。总的来说,CNM在预测方面不如MNM效果好。

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(3)【蓝色经济】国家的蓝碳财富

[Blue Economy] The blue carbon wealth of nations

红树林、盐沼地和海草床的碳捕集与封存功能是缓解气候变化的一项重要的沿海 “蓝碳 “生态系统服务。该研究对三种沿海生态系统类型的碳捕集与封存在全球和国家层面上进行了全面的经济评估,提出了一种基于各国碳社会成本的新方法,能够计算出每个国家对全球蓝碳财富的贡献度和再分配程度。在全球范围内,沿海生态系统对蓝碳财富的贡献平均为1906.7±300亿美元/年。

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(4)【海洋生态】利用人工海草促进海草恢复的正反馈机制

[Ocean Ecosystem] Using Artificial Seagrass for Promoting Positive Feedback Mechanisms in Seagrass Restoration

通过改变环境,海草作为基础物种和生态系统工程师,改善自身和其他物种的栖息地质量,并积极影响自身的健康发展。然而这种正反馈机制会使消失和被破坏的海草草场无法自然恢复。在海草恢复中促进正反馈机制的一个创新方法是构建人工海草(ASG),模仿天然海草正反馈增长的促进功能。ASG可以在合适的水动力和光照条件以及沉积物稳定方面提供一个机会窗口,使天然海草得以重新建立。

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(5)【划区管理】环境、生态和不受深海采矿影响的地区的潜在效力

[Area-based Management] Environment, ecology, and potential effectiveness of an area protected from deep-sea mining

为了保护克拉里昂-克利珀顿区(CCZ)的一系列生境、物种和生态系统功能,国际海底管理局(ISA)已经指定了九个具有特别环境利益区(APEIs)。这些特别环境利益区地处偏远,很少有人光顾,人们对其了解甚少。文章综述了在APEI-6(最东北部的APEI)进行的所有现有观测,并评估其对东部CCZ采矿协议区的代表性。

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其他资料 Other Resources

(1)【海洋治理】鳗鱼草研究显示在恢复工作中位置比方法更重要

[Ocean Governance] Eelgrass Study by the Pacific Marine and Estuarine Fish Habitat Partnership (PMEP) Shows Location Matters More Than Method in Restoration Efforts

报告/Report


(2)【海洋治理】百集系列节目《行走海岸线》全景阐释中国海洋强国发展

[Ocean Governance] The 100-episode series “Walking Coastline” explains the development of China’s ocean power in a panoramic way

视频/Video


(3)【海洋治理】全球海洋生物多样性倡议(GOBI)简报2021夏季刊

[Ocean Governance] Global Ocean Biodiversity Initiative (GOBI) Newsletter Summer 2021

报告/Report


(4)【海洋治理】游说活动遏制了拯救大堡礁的抗争

[Ocean Governance] The lobbying push that killed off a fight to save the Great Barrier Reef

播客/Podcast


活动 Events

>>预告 Upcoming Events

2021年08月18日 网络研讨会 探寻可持续认证的俄罗斯三文鱼的利用可能
2021.08.18 Webinar: Making the Case for Sustainably-Certified Russian Salmon
详情/Detail


2021年09月17日 网络研讨会 在渔业管理和海洋生态管理中使用渐进式方法处理 “复杂问题”
2021.09.17 Using an incremental approach for “wicked problems” in fisheries management and marine EBM
详情/Detail


2021年09月22日-25日 全球水产养殖大会将首次在中国举办——公开征集中国水产养殖成就展示内容
2021.09.22-25 Global Aquaculture Conference to be held in China for the first time – Open call for content to showcase China’s aquaculture achievements
详情/Detail


>>回顾 Recordings

2021年07月14日 Haimanti Biswas博士在网络研讨会上发表题为《浮游生物和海洋生物多样性》的演讲
2021.07.14 Dr. Haimanti Biswas’s Lecture on Webinar titled Plankton and Marine Biodiversity
详情/Detail


2021年07月21日 未来在这里——气候科学和报道IPCC第六次评估报告
2021.07.21 The Future Is Here — Climate Science and Covering the IPCC 6th Assessment Report
详情/Detail


2021年07月22日 WG2020联合主席关于《2020年后全球生物多样性》第一稿的简报
2021.07.22 Briefings by the WG2020 Co-Chairs on the First Draft of the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity
详情/Detail


>>其他 Others

本快讯两周更新一期,往期内容可以查看这里。如果您在快讯内容或形式上有任何意见或建议,欢迎发邮件至ocean@ghub.org告诉我们,也欢迎您将《蓝色脉搏》推荐给同事和朋友

我们正在跟踪新冠疫情导致的海洋相关国际会议安排的变动,最新的信息在这里

感谢实习同事李如意对本期快讯的贡献


题图:一只将死的鸟蛤在水面上裂开 | Julie Barber 摄