第 30 期 | 蓝色脉搏·海洋生命共同体速递

日期:

面对气候变化迫在眉睫的威胁,世界正在迅速就海洋保护目标达成共识——80个国家已经承诺将在2030年前保护30%的全球海洋。此外,在创绿研究院最新的报告中也对海洋保护目标的历史和意义进行了梳理和讨论。

导语 Introduction

关键点一

本期蓝色脉搏的编辑周期跨越了今年的世界海洋日。在海洋日当天,“为自然和人类的高雄心联盟”和“全球海洋联盟”的80个国家一起发声支持在2030年保护30%的海洋(30×30)。这两个联盟都是由英国发起。“30×30”的倡议在2018年的联大期间起步,2019年9月的时候只有十个国家支持。可以看到,在下一个十年的海洋生物多样性保护中提升行动力度的共识正在快速形成。在本期的“其他资料”板块中,可以看到由创绿研究院发布的关于海洋保护目标的历史讨论的报告。该报告对于面积百分比目标的历史讨论进行了梳理,并对我们可以如何看待和利用这个目标进行了讨论。

Highlight 1

This year’s World Oceans Day has been celebrated in the editorial cycle of this issue. On World Oceans Day, the High Ambition Coalition for Nature and People and the Global Ocean Alliance brought together 80 countries to speak out for protecting 30% of the global ocean by 2030(30×30). Both coalitions were initiated by the UK. The “30×30” initiative got its start in September 2018, with only ten countries supporting it in its first year. It is clear that a consensus is rapidly emerging to scale up action in the next decade of marine biodiversity conservation. In the Other Resources section of this issue, you will find a report on the discussion of global marine conservation targets, published by the Greenovation Hub. The report takes a look at the existing discussion of the area percentage target for global ocean conservation and discusses how we can make the best use of it.


时讯 News

被过度捕捞的金枪鱼 | Blue Marine Foundation 摄

(1) 在印度洋金枪鱼委员会会议(IOTC)举行前期,非政府组织Blue Marine Foundation (BLUE) 和 International Pole and Line Foundation (IPNLF) 敦促大会为被过度捕捞的黄鳍金枪鱼制定新的恢复计划。

Blue Marine Foundation (BLUE) and International Pole and Line Foundation (IPNLF), two NGO groups, are urging for a new rebuilding plan for overfished yellowfin tuna stocks ahead of the IOTC meeting.

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(2) 联合国大会海洋问题高级别活动于2021年6月1日举行,活动鼓励参会者对于海洋问题提出进取且创新的行动承诺。

UN General Assembly High-Level Event on the Ocean was held on 1 June 2021, encouraging ambitious and innovative commitments on ocean issues.

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(3)世界海洋日(2021年6月8日):80个国家宣布支持“到2030年保护30%的海洋”的目标。

World Ocean Day (8th June 2021): 80 countries have now signed up to an international target to protect at least 30 percent of the world’s ocean by 2030

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(4)全球渔业观察(Global Fishing Watch) 正式推出全球渔业观察海洋管理器,一个旨在帮助监管机构和研究人员追踪参与商业捕捞和其他活动的船舶的技术工具,其中包括游轮,石油钻探和航运等。

Global Fishing Watch formally launched its Global Fishing Watch Marine Manager, a technology portal that will allow regulatory authorities and researchers to monitor vessels involved in commercial fishing and other activities, such as vessels involved in tourism, oil drilling, and shipping.

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(5) 欧洲议会于6月9日通过了一项名为“2030年欧盟生物多样性战略:让自然回归我们的生活。”的决议。

European Parliament adopted a resolution on June 9 entitled “European Parliament resolution of 9 June 2021 on the EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030: Bringing nature back into our lives (2020/2273(INI))” 

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观点 Perspectives

图片
澳洲昆士兰海岸:珊瑚以沉船为家茁壮成长 | Colin Baker Getty Images 摄

(1) 皮尤慈善信托基金会:”海洋保护区的目的是为了保护自然,而精心设计和良好执行的OECMs (其他有效的区域保护措施)不光可以帮助保护生物多样性,还可以支持需要健康海洋环境来谋生的当地群体。因此,OECMs是帮助政府达成30×30 目标的一个重要工具。“

PEW: ” While MPAs are designed specifically to conserve nature, well-designed and well-delivered OECMs (other effective area-based conservation measures) can help to protect biodiversity as well as support local communities who rely on a healthy marine environment. Therefore, OECMs could be an important tool in reaching the global goal of conserving at least 30% of the ocean by 2030.”

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(2)Molly Taft:“国际能源署早前表示,所有新的石油和天然气生产需要在明年之前停止,以确保人类达成《巴黎协定》规定的减排目标。但俄罗斯最新的北极石油钻探项目无视了这个建议,竟然决定在世界上最敏感的地区之一钻探石油!”

Molly Taft: “The International Energy Agency said earlier that all new oil and gas production needs to stop by next year to keep the world on track to meet the targets set by the Paris Agreement, But screw that, apparently! There’s oil to be drilled in one of the most sensitive regions in the world!”.

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(3) 郭晶晶 & 苏纪兰:“为了修复和可持续利用海洋资源,中国需要在严格的科学指导下采取协调同步的管理策略。中国在海洋治理方面的立场和态度将对全球产生积极而重大的影响。”

Guo Jingjing & Su Jilan: “For restoration and sustainable utilization of marine resources, China needs to adopt a coordinated management approach under rigorous scientific guidance. China’s position and attitude on ocean governance will have a positive and significant impact globally.”

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(4) Maria Damanaki:“尽管超过三分之一的鱼类种群已经被过度捕捞,许多政府仍然用纳税人的钱补贴渔业,这造成了产能过剩和破坏性捕捞的行为。“

Maria Damanaki: “Despite more than one-third of all fish stocks have been overfished, many governments around the world continue to spend taxpayer money to encourage overfishing, through fisheries subsidies that contribute to overcapacity and destructive fishing practices.”

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(5) Anastasia Quintana & Alfredo Nava:“我们的新论文揭示了社区支持对保护工作的重要性,以及在生态保护上做的“不错”的小型保护区是如何促进当地社区对于保护工作的长期支持。”

Anastasia Quintana & Alfredo Nava: “Our new paper shows how critical community support is to conservation efforts and how smaller reserves that are “good enough” ecologically can foster that support and lead to successful long-term conservation”.

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解读 Interpretations

图片
鸟瞰山东长岛 | Wang Kai / Alamy  摄

(1) 中外对话:中国探索建立首批海上国家公园

中国建立国家公园的探索始于陆上,而海上国家公园也正迎头赶上,尽管面临挑战重重,例如:如何平衡生态保护与经济发展之间的关系、以及管理人员不足、缺乏管理主体以及员工缺乏多部门协调工作能力等问题。

China’s national park system started on land, but marine national parks are following close behind – despite facing extra challenges. Some of the challenges include balancing environmental protection and economic development, insufficient experienced staff, lack of main management bodies, and lack of cross-functional coordination.

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(2) 世界经济论坛:小小植物和巨型动物帮助我们在海洋中储存了大量CO2

最近的研究显示,硅藻,一种微型植物,能够每年吸收100-200亿吨二氧化碳。这相当于世界上所有热带雨林每年能够捕获的总碳量。海草虽然只占海洋面积的0.2%,却占海洋储存碳能力的10%。然而,海洋植物遭受侵蚀可能会导致排放量的增加。

鲸鱼在60年的生命中平均积累了33吨二氧化碳,一旦它们死亡,就会沉入海底,将碳封存数百年之久。鲸鱼产生的废物中的铁和氮吸引了微小的浮游生物,而浮游生物本身就能消耗大约370亿公吨的二氧化碳–相当于1.70万亿棵树的捕获量。鲸鱼与浮游生物合作,进一步储存和减少碳量。

According to recent research,diatoms, a microscopic plant is able to absorb 10-20 billion tons of CO2 every year. That is equal to the amount of carbon captured annually by all of the world’s rainforests. Seagrass, another tiny plant, though it only accounts for 0.2% of the ocean,  it accounts for 10% of the ocean’s capacity to store carbon. However, The erosion of marine plants may be contributing to a growth in emissions. Whales store huge amounts of CO2 – accumulating an average of 33 tons over a 60-year lifespan. Once they die, they sink to the bottom of the ocean, trapping the carbon for hundreds of years. The iron and nitrogen in the waste that whales produce attract microscopic plankton, which is in itself capable of consuming around 37 billion metric tons of CO2 – equivalent to the amount captured by 1.70 trillion trees. Whales can work together with plankton to further store and reduce carbon.

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(3) 生态环境部:《2020年中国海洋生态环境状况公报》

2020年海洋生态环境整体稳定。海水环境质量总体有所改善,典型海洋生态健康状况总体保证稳定。入海河流水质总体状况与上年相比无明显变化。海洋倾倒区、油气区环境质量基本符合要求。海洋渔业水域环境质量总体良好。赤潮发现次数和累计面积较上年有所下降。

China’s overall quality of marine environment stays stable in 2020. The quality of the seawater has improved in general. The overall health of the typical marine habitats remains stable. The water quality of the rivers entering the sea has not changed much compared with the year 2019. The environmental quality of ocean dumping sites and oil-gas areas generally meets the requirements. In general, the environmental quality of the marine fishery waters is good. Both the number of and the areas of red tide have decreased compared with the year 2019.

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(4) 中外对话:深海采矿:生态忧虑深,企业公关忙

深海采矿运动(the Deep Sea Mining Campaign) 的海伦·罗森鲍姆博士指出大众应该警惕一些企业和政府关于深海海底采矿的公关手段,这些手段旨在伪装深海采矿的破坏性。手法包括巧妙的话术(比如将采矿形容为农业中的”采收“)或者不切实际的比较(将深海采矿与陆地采矿相比),更为糟糕的是,采矿公司往往对参与深海采矿的小岛屿国家给出一些缺乏透明度和无法兑现的承诺。

Dr. Helen Rosenbaum from the Deep Sea Mining Campaign warns that the public needs to be aware of some governments and companies are using PR tactics to disguise the destructive nature of deep-sea mining. These tactics include smart rhetoric (for example describing mining as “harvesting” in agriculture) or unrealistic comparisons (comparing deep-sea mining to land-based mining). What is worse is that mining companies often make false promises that are hard to achieve and opaque to the small island nations involved in deep-sea mining.

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(5) 中外对话:渔船电子监控系统十问

非法、非报告和无管制(IUU)的捕捞活动每年造成大量的渔业资源损失。不少业内人士寄希望于电子监控技术(Electronic Monitoring, EM) 来帮助解决这一问题。文章回答了十个关于电子监控的常见问题,讨论了当前电子监控系统的应用,以及未来的趋势。

Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing wastes significant fishery resources each year. Many experts are looking forward to electronic monitoring technology as a solution to solve this problem. The article gives a Q&A about some common questions about EM. In addition, it discusses current applications and future trends of EM.

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学术 Academics

(1) 【划区管理】沿海岸地区的保护政策对农民生计的影响:从农民的视角进行观察研究

[Area-based Management]  What Are the Impacts of a Coastal Zone Protection Policy on Farmers’ Livelihood Capital? Empirical Analysis From the Perspective of Farmer Participation

研究人员选择广西北海市合浦县北部湾作为研究地点,探索沿海地区的保护政策对沿岸农民的生计影响。通过可持续生计框架(sustainable livelihood framework,SLF)和实地采访问卷调查的形式,研究人员发现,从沿岸农民的角度而言,自然资本 (natural capital) 和社会资本(social capital) 都有所增加。但是,政策对人力资本(human capital),实物资本(physical capital) 和金融资本(financial capital) 影响有限。因此,作者认为应该建立沿岸生态补偿机制来提高农民对于政策的参与意愿。

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(2)【海洋生态】海洋环境中,可生物降解塑料的半衰期取决于自身的材料、所处的环境和气候区

[Ocean Ecosystem] Half-Life of Biodegradable Plastics in the Marine Environment Depends on Material, Habitat, and Climate Zone

研究测试了四种可生物降解塑料(分别是聚羥基丁酸酯(PHB)、聚癸二酸丁二醇酯(PBSe)、聚对苯二甲酸丁二醇酯(PBSeT)、聚乙烯(LDPE) 在海洋环境中的降解能力。测试在三个环境下进行,分别为为实验室环境(20°C)、地中海自然环境(12-30°C)和东南亚热带环境(29°C)。塑料薄膜样本被放置在海滩、中上层开放水域和海底,并随着时间的推移来观察分解情况。结果显示,东南亚热带环境(高水温)和海底(高压)最有利于塑料的降解。研究对了解塑料的降解周期有重要意义。

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(3)【技术工具】水生系统中预测栖息地选择的新研究框架:利用机器学习和资源选择函数分析多个鲨鱼品种的声学遥测数据

[Tech & Tools] A Novel Framework to Predict Relative Habitat Selection in Aquatic Systems: Applying Machine Learning and Resource Selection Functions to Acoustic Telemetry Data From Multiple Shark Species

资源选择函数(RSFs)是研究陆地动物栖息地的惯用方法,但鲜少见于海洋环境的研究。而声学调查是海洋研究中常见的研究方法。本文提供了一种新的研究方法——将机器学习和RSFs应用于四个鲨鱼种群的声学遥测数据集,以探索和预测在一个海洋保护区内,它们如何进行栖息地选择。这种研究方法对决策者确定保护管理策略能提供更多帮助。

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(4)【海洋生态】景观配置和土地利用变化是如何影响蓝碳在红树林-海草环境中的动态和命运

[Ocean Ecosystem] Dynamics and fate of blue carbon in a mangrove–seagrass seascape: influence of landscape configuration and land-use change

文章探讨了不同景观配置和临近红树林退化对海草吸收蓝碳能力的影响。可能是受流体动力学影响,研究人员发现陆地-海洋梯度呈现明显碳浓度差异。除此以外,在靠近被砍伐的红树林附近,海草表面沉积物有着较高的碳浓度,这可能是由于被砍伐的红树林土壤中碳的排出增加所致。由大型连续海草草甸组成的海景与更加多样化和零星的海景相比,具有更高的碳吸收水平。

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(5) 【渔业管理】软体动物养殖业使中国18,400公里海岸线上的潮间带软沙群落均匀化

 [Fishery Management] Mollusc aquaculture homogenizes intertidal soft-sediment communities along the 18,400 km long coastline of China

中国拥有着悠久的软体动物(贝类等)养殖历史。文章观测了中国沿海密集的养殖业对生物多样性梯度的影响。结果显示,高密度地养殖少数物种可导致本地物种的生态作用被取代,但本地物种并不会因此灭绝。但养殖业还是会导致潮间带生物多样性的下降,甚至抹平了生物多样性的梯度性差异。所以,在制定相关政策的时候需要考虑这方面的影响。

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其他资料 Other resources

【海洋治理】保护海洋:多少才够?全球海洋保护目标的历史讨论
[Ocean Governance] Protect the Ocean: How Much is Enough Discussions on the Global Ocean Protection Target
报告/Report


【生物多样性】北极陆地生物多样性现状的主要发现和监测建议
 [Biodiversity] State of the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Key Findings and Advice for Monitoring
报告/Report


【蓝色经济】WWF警告日益繁忙的航运业对鲸鱼的危险
[Blue Economy] Increasing shipping traffic – a growing risk to whales, warns WWF
报告/Report


【海洋治理】联合国海洋杂志(环境&海岸&近海)
[Ocean Governance] UN Ocean Decade edition of ECO Magazine
报告/Report


活动 Events

>>预告 Upcoming Events

2021年07月6日-8日 麦考瑞大学 环境法中心网络研讨会 生物多样性法律与政策
2021.07.06-8 Global Dialogue on Biodiversity Law and Governance Online Program
详情/Detail


2021年07月08日 网络研讨会 利用多样化的激励手段来促进公平和有效的海洋保护区治理:新的案例研究和实践指导
2021.07.08 Webinar How to use diverse incentives to promote effective and equitable MPA governance: New case studies and practical guidance
详情/Detail


2021年07月19日-21日 全球变化与可持续生态学研讨会暨碳中和与生态保育高峰论坛
2021.07.19-21 Symposium on Global Change and Sustainable Ecology and Summit on Carbon Neutrality and Ecological Conservation
详情/Detail


>>回顾 Recordings

2020年12月1日 海洋数据革命如何用来减轻气候变化、过度捕捞和污染
2020.12.01 Revolutionizing ocean data to mitigate climate change, overfishing, and pollution
详情/Detail


2021年05月20日 欧洲海事局网络研讨会:在数字海洋时代维持海洋原位观测
2021.05.20 EMB Science Webinar – Sustaining in situ Ocean Observations for the Digital Ocean
详情/Detail


2021年5月22日 生物多样性日 | 关于重塑人与自然的关系的10项建议
2021.05.22 International Day for Biological Diversity | 10 Suggestions on rebuilding human-nature relationships
详情/Detail


>>其他 Others

本快讯两周更新一期,往期内容可以查看这里。如果您在快讯内容或形式上有任何意见或建议,欢迎发邮件至ocean@ghub.org告诉我们,也欢迎您将《蓝色脉搏》推荐给同事和朋友

我们正在跟踪新冠疫情导致的海洋相关国际会议安排的变动,最新的信息在这里

感谢实习同事章学磊对本期快讯的贡献


题图:[题注]被过度捕捞的黄鳍金枪鱼 |  Blue Marine Foundation 摄