第 26 期 | 蓝色脉搏·海洋生命共同体速递

日期:

本期重点关注日本准备排放核废水的争议决定,除此以外,也有两位海洋科学家对于最近大火的网飞纪录片《海洋阴谋》评价。

导语 Introduction

关键点一

这一个月来,海洋再次成为全世界注目的焦点,先是因为苏伊士运河堵塞导致的航运危机,接着是这两周因为日本准备排放福岛核处理水的决定。本期解读版块收录了一篇文章回顾了福岛事故十年以来的应对灾难的历程以及人们为什么对东京电力缺乏信心。两个地点,因为海洋,就可以牵动全世界的心。海洋命运共同体仿佛一下子从词汇变成了现实,而命运是向好还是向坏则要看共同体里的成员的集体选择了。

Highlight 1

The oceans have once again been in the world’s spotlight this month, first because of the shipping crisis caused by the obstruction of the Suez Canal, and then  Japan’s decision to discharge the treated nuclear wastewater from Fukushima. This issue’s Interpretation section includes an article looking back at the response to the disaster ten years on from Fukushima and why there is a lack of confidence in TEPCO. Two locations, because of the ocean, can raise concerns of the world. It is as if the community of shared future has suddenly gone from being a word to reality, and it is up to the collective choices of the members of the community to decide how their future should look like.

关键点二

网飞的纪录片《海洋阴谋》(Seaspiracy)自3月底上映以来引发了复杂的反响,据说有不少观众看了之后就决定不吃海产品了。这部电影中提及的问题也一直是《蓝色脉搏》关注的,本期的观点部分收录了两位科学家对该片的评论(剧透慎入!),可以帮助观众更理性地看待这部纪录片。建议还是先看片再来读评论。《蓝色脉搏》鼓励关心热爱海洋的朋友勇于面对海洋问题的复杂性,勤学习多讨论,而不是一头埋入过于简单化的答案中。

Highlight 2

Netflix’s documentary Seaspiracy has generated mixed response since its release at the end of March, with a number of viewers reportedly deciding not to eat seafood after watching it. The issues raised in the film have also been our interest, and this issue’s Opinion section features commentaries on the film from two scientists (spoiler alert!) , which will help viewers to take a more rational view of the documentary. It is advisable to watch the film before reading the commentaries. The Blue Pulse would encourage those who care about and love the oceans to face the complexity of ocean issues and to learn and discuss them rather than dive headfirst into oversimplified answers.


时讯 News

图片
位于乌拉圭首都蒙得维的亚的一处繁忙港口 | Alamy  摄

(1) 乌拉圭寻求与阿根廷和巴西合作保护洄游鱼类种群,并希望通过建立区域阵线来应对外国船队在管辖海域边界周围的过渡捕捞。

Uruguay wants to work with Argentina and Brazil to protect migratory fish populations. The government wants to form a regional front to tackle overfishing by foreign fleets on the borders of national waters.

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(2)首个关于非洲海牛保护的线上会议召开,科学家和环境管理人员讨论了现阶段关于非洲海牛的研究成果和它们所受到的威胁。

First-Ever Conference on African Manatees was held virtually. Scientists and environmental managers discuss current research efforts and threats that African Manatees are facing.

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(3) 由于运往中国的海鲜面临着更严格的检查和运输延误,中国的海鲜加工厂正在遭受成本上升的重创。

Chinese processing factories are suffering “a lot” from rising costs related to heightened inspections and delays on seafood being shipped into China.

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(4)日本政府周二宣布两年后将会把处理过的福岛核电站的核废水排入太平洋。这一举动遭到了当地渔民,居民,邻国的激烈反对。

Japan’s government announced Tuesday it would start releasing treated radioactive water from the Fukushima nuclear plant into the Pacific Ocean in two years. It is a move that is fiercely opposed by fishermen, residents, and Japan’s neighbors.

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(5)  在最近关于推进遏制有害渔业补贴协议谈判的会议上,世界贸易组织(WTO)成员讨论了如何修改使有关已经过度捕捞的种群的补贴条款草案与预防过度捕捞的补贴条款草案相一致。世贸组织总干事Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala呼吁成员国确保世贸组织在2021年7月达成协议。

At the most recent cluster of meetings to advance negotiations on an agreement to curb harmful fisheries subsidies, World Trade Organization (WTO) members discussed ways to align draft provisions on subsidies concerning overfished stocks with draft provisions on subsidies that aim to prevent overfishing. WTO Director-General Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala called on members to ensure the WTO reaches an agreement by July 2021.

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观点 Perspectives

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外交部条法司贾桂德司长于研讨会上 | 中国国际法前沿 摄

(1)贾桂德:“推动建设公正合理的国际海洋秩序,特别需要妥善处理以下三方面问题:一是合理平衡海洋保护与可持续利用;二是加强海洋治理机制协同增效和普惠;三是处理好海洋法继承与发展的关系。“

Jia Guide:” We need to in particular properly handle the following three issues so as to develop a fair and reasonable global ocean order: (a) to strike a balance between ocean protection and sustainable use; (b) to enhance the synergy and shared benefits of ocean governance mechanisms; (c) to properly balance the continuation and development of the law of the sea.”

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(2) Alex Rogers:“ 它(纪录片《海洋阴谋》)虽然有错误,有时只介绍了故事的一部分或者用不完整的信息来配合整体的叙述。但是,它的核心揭示了一个令人震惊的事实,即不可持续的捕捞活动正在摧毁海洋的生物多样性。而负责渔业管理的政府部门明知这样做会对人类产生严重后果。”

Alex Rogers: “ It (Seaspiracy) contains errors and sometimes presents only part of the story to suit the narrative or just confusing incomplete information. At its core, however, it reveals the shocking truth that unsustainable fishing is destroying the biodiversity of the ocean, with clear knowledge of the authorities in charge of fisheries management and with dire consequences for humankind.”

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(3)Daniel Pauly:“《海洋阴谋》叙事的侧重点有所偏颇,以至于没能说出真正需要传播的关键信息: 那就是人们需要共同努力,推动政策和行业规则的改变,从而来控制一个经常违法但是屡屡逃脱惩罚的行业。”

Daniel Pauly:” Seaspiracy undermines its tremendous potential value: to persuade people to work together, and push for change in policy and rules that will rein in an industry which often breaks the law with impunity.”

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(4) 加州大学圣塔芭芭拉分校:“物种的多样与平衡支撑着健康和富饶的生态系统,我们却对海洋的生物多样性的现状知之甚少”

University of California – Santa Barbara:” We know remarkably little about the state of the ocean’s biodiversity — the variety and balance of species that support healthy and productive ecosystems.”

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(5)Jerome Petit:”科学表明,尽可能地限制采掘活动会让海洋和人类会受益匪浅。“

Jerome Petit:” Science shows that greatly limiting extractive activities yields the most benefits to ocean and people.”

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解读 Interpretations

图片
福建北郊村渔港 | Jiang Kehong / Alamy  摄

(1)中外对话海洋:“十四五”海洋生态环境蓝图

于3月11日闭幕的全国“两会”通过了“十四五”规划纲要。作为中国宣布碳中和目标后出台的第一份五年规划,其中的气候能源类目标在今年广受国内外关注。海洋是气候之外另一个具有超越国家边界的深远影响的领域,在这份新的规划纲要中,海洋专章中的诸多表述表明中国将在海洋领域向外拓展生态环保理念。

On March 11, the 14th Five Year Plan (FYP) for economic and social development was approved. In particular, its climate and energy targets received great attention both domestically and internationally. The FYP has a standalone section on the ocean that for the first time includes the word sustainable in relation to distant-water fishing, and suggests China’s environmental ideas will be extended overseas.

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(2)Laura Castanon: 福岛第一核电站和海洋:十年来的灾难应对

2011年3月11日,日本仙台市以东80英里处发生里氏9级地震,引发的海啸猛烈冲击海岸线,使福岛第一核电站严重受损。十年后的今天,核电站的所有者——东京电力公司,因为决策过程的不透明,仍然难以赢得大众的信任。

On March 11, 2011, a magnitude 9 earthquake 80 miles east of the Japanese city of Sendai generated a towering tsunami that slammed into the coastline and critically damaged the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. Since then, the Tokyo Electric Power Company, which owns the plant, continues struggling to gain trust from the public due to a lack of transparency in their decision processes.

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(3) 世界自然基金会:海里的塑料会影响我们的健康吗?

在对555个海洋和河口鱼类物种的171,774条个体进行研究后发现,有超过三分之二的物种存在摄入微塑料的现象,共计为386个物种,其中210个物种因具有经济价值成为了商业捕捞的目标。不仅如此,研究还强调海洋鱼类摄入微塑料的概率在过去十年里翻了一番,且还在以每年2%以上的速度增长

After studying 171,774 individuals from 555 marine and freshwater fish species, scientists have found microplastics in more than two-thirds, a total of 386 fish species. Of all the 386 species, 210 of which were targeted for commercial fishing due to their economic value. Moreover, the study stresses that the case of ingestion of microplastics by marine fish has doubled in the last 10 years, and continues to increase by more than 2% per year.  

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(4) 世界经济论坛: 海洋稳定性和它的意义

随着全球气温的升高,海洋不同层级间的互动正在变得越来越少。这对海洋生物和气候都会造成破坏。最近的一项研究发现,这一变化的速度比科学家预期的快了六倍。

 As global temperatures rise, the world’s oceans are technically becoming more stable, which can be damaging for ocean life and the climate. A recent study has found that the stability of the ocean increased at a rate that was six times faster than scientists were anticipating.

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(5)Trang Chu Minh:鲨鱼保护的五个误解

五个有关鲨鱼保护的误解必须被澄清:(a) 鲨鱼对人类比人类对鲨鱼更危险 (b)只有在亚洲,鲨鱼才会因为它的鱼鳍被捕杀 (c) 鲨鱼面对的威胁只有过度捕捞 (d) 禁止割取和销售鲨鱼的鱼鳍是唯一的解决办法 (e) 关于鲨鱼的旅游活动对于保护工作总是有利无害的。

Here are five myths that must be debunked to improve shark conservation efforts:(a) Sharks pose more of a threat to humans than vice versa (b) Sharks are hunted only for their fins, and only in Asia (c) Sharks are only threatened by overfishing (d) A ban on shark finning or the sale of shark fins is the only solution (e) Shark tourism always benefits conservation efforts

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学术 Academics

(1)【海洋生态】海洋哺乳动物保护:展望未来

[Marine Ecosystem]  Marine mammal conservation: over the horizon

研究关注 1)海洋哺乳类动物面临的主要威胁,以及相关的知识空缺和相应的保护行动。2)讨论主流和新兴的保护方法优缺点 3)概述相关研究和监测技术的应用 4)重点强调有哪些物种的保护需要立刻得到重视。

阅读/Read


(2)【划区管理】渔业空间管理:寻找印尼深海底层渔业的捕捞热点

[Area based managment] Identifying hotspots for spatial management of the Indonesian deep‐slope demersal fishery

研究显示,未成熟的鱼群在爪哇海望加锡海峡附近被捕捞的几率远较其他区域高,但是这些热点区域只有2.4% 在海洋保护区内。研究呼吁应该提高海洋保护区在爪哇海的所占比例,此举将让当地的深海渔业更具可持续性并长期受益。

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(3)【渔业管理】动态vs.静态地关闭捕捞区域来减少意外捕捞:一项剑鱼渔业的管理策略评估

[Fishery Management] Comparing Dynamic and Static Time-Area Closures for Bycatch Mitigation: A Management Strategy Evaluation of a Swordfish Fishery

通过固定或者动态地关闭加州剑鱼的捕捞区域来评估哪种模式能够更有效的减少梭皮龟的兼捕。

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(4)【渔业管理】用倒置管理办法来保护濒危海洋动物

 [Fishery Management] An Inverted Management Strategy for the Fishery of Endangered Marine Species

巴西在2019年采用了这种倒置管理法来延缓鹦哥鱼的过度捕捞,即在部分保护的海洋保护区内允许一定的鹦哥鱼的捕捞,但禁止在其划定区域以外捕捞。如果实施得当,濒危物种能够在更大区域活动,渔民也能从中受益。

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(5)【渔业管理】跨越边界:外部因素和先前行为影响北太平洋信天翁与渔船的联系

  [Fishery Management] Across borders: External factors and prior behaviour influence North Pacific albatross associations with fishing vessels

本文揭示了北太平洋信天翁和渔船的联系。结果发现信天翁与渔船的出现频率成正比,与捕鱼方式无关。政策方面,作者认为可以通过类似“全球捕鱼观察”(Global Fishing Watch) 来找到时间-空间模式的规律,从而提高预测模型的准确性并使减缓措施更有针对性

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其他资料 Other resources

 【渔业】高风险:印度洋公海上破坏性捕鱼对环境和社会的影响
[Fishing Industry] High Stakes: The environmental and social impacts of destructive fishing on the high seas of the Indian Ocean
报告/Report


 【海洋】影响力的故事:海洋行动之友报告
[Ocean] Stories of Impact: Friends of Ocean Action Publishes New Report
报告/Report

 
【海洋】海洋保护区映射: 一个适用于美国和国际海域的海洋保护区(MPA)和海洋管理区(MMA)的界限和法规的数据集。
[Ocean] MPA Mapping: a dataset of boundaries and regulations that apply to marine protected areas (MPAs) and marine managed areas (MMAs) in U.S. and international marine waters.
资料集/Databaset


【海洋】美国国家海洋大气总署的海洋播客
[Ocean] The NOAA Ocean Podcast
播客/Podcast


活动 Events

>>预告 Upcoming Events

2021年04月29日上午:中日韩青年南极保护线上研讨会
2021.04.29. Webinar Youth Ocean Policy Panel:
详情/Detail


2021年04月30日 网络研讨会 30X30背后的“原因”:海洋保护区效益的科学状况
2021.04.30. Webinar  The “Why” Behind 30×30: The State of the Science on Marine Protected Area Benefits

详情/Detail


2021年04月27日 网络研讨会 给四年级的课程:水塑造了我们的星球和生命
2021.4.27 Webinar 4th Grade Curriculum: Water Shapes our Planet and our Lives
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2021年04月30日 网络研讨会 海洋里的可再生能源
2021.04.30 Webinar  Ocean renewable energy
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>>回顾 Recordings

2021年 01月28日 网络研讨会 小组讨论:如何让科学影响海洋政策和管理
2021.01.28 Webinar How to do science so it influences marine policy and management: A panel discussion
详情/Detail


2020年 12月15日 网络研讨会 发展综合沿海水体预测能力来提高韧性
2020.12.15 Webinar: Developing an Integrated Coastal Water Predictive Capability to Promote Resilience
详情/Detail


2021年 03月02日 网络研讨会 扭转趋势:如何为可持续的海洋复苏提供资金
2021.03.02 Webinar Turning the Tide: How to Finance a Sustainable Ocean Recovery
详情/Detail


2021年 04月08日 网络研讨会 近海拖网捕捞的气候影响:英国脱欧后的沉积物的碳储存管理
2021.04.08 Webinar The climate impacts of offshore bottom trawling: Managing sediment carbon storage in the UK post-Brexit
详情/Detail


2021年 01月14日 网络研讨会 应对保护区内的海洋废物的最佳办法和例子
2021.01.14 Webinar Addressing marine debris in protected areas: Best practices and examples
详情/Detail


>>其他 Others

本快讯两周更新一期,往期内容可以查看这里。如果您在快讯内容或形式上有任何意见或建议,欢迎发邮件至ocean@ghub.org告诉我们,也欢迎您将《蓝色脉搏》推荐给同事和朋友

我们正在跟踪新冠疫情导致的海洋相关国际会议安排的变动,最新的信息在这里


题图:乌拉圭蒙得维的亚港,一艘货轮正在卸货。西南大西洋丰富的海洋生物资源吸引着全球各地的捕捞船队,Alamy | 制