第 23 期 | 蓝色脉搏·海洋生命共同体速递

日期:

气候变化下的渔业和海洋养护政策制定。

导语 Introduction

关键点一

本期学术版块收录了一篇澳大利亚前南极局长Tony Press的文章,讨论的是如何用有限的科学信息来支持回应大规模风险的政策制定。这个挑战其实广泛存在于公海生物资源管理和环境保护的国际进程中。文章认为,科学家需要理解决策者所进行决策的所需要的内容,决策者也了解科学家努力的背景和局限性,科学和政策的对话必须包含理解风险的讨论,例如决策规则可以从科学或者专家建议中得出度量的标准(例如IPCC的报告),这些度量标准可以为政策提供参考。不过,作者没有提及决策者群体内部的国家利益分歧,这也可能是导致决策者无法对科学意见形成一致看法并采取行动的重要原因。

Highlight 1

In the Academic section of this issue, there is a paper by Tony Press, former director of the Australian Antarctic Division, discussing how limited scientific information can be used to support policy-making in response to large-scale risks. This challenge is in fact common in international processes for the management of living resources and environmental protection in the high seas. The paper suggests that scientists need to understand what is needed for policymaking, and policymakers need to understand the context and limitations of scientists’ efforts and that the science-policy dialogue must include a discussion of understanding risks, e.g. decision rules can derive metrics from scientific or expert advice (e.g. the IPCC report), and these metrics can inform policy. However, the author did not mention the divergence of national interests within the groups of international policymakers, which may also be an important reason for the inability of policymakers to agree and act on scientific advice.

关键点二 

自本期开始我们增设了“解读”版块,里面将收录学术和非学术类议题分析梳理类的文章,可以帮助读者在最短时间内迅速了解一个议题的来龙去脉。敬请关注并给我们提出意见和建议。

Highlight 2

From this issue onwards, we have added an ‘Interpretation section, which will include analytical articles,academic and non-academic, that could help readers to quickly understand the context and development of an issue. Please stay tuned and let us know your comments and suggestions!


时讯 News

图片
“停止资助过度捕捞运动 “在世贸组织总部前摆放了一座融化的鱼冰雕
海洋行动之友,世界经济论坛 制

(1)世贸组织总理事会在新任命的总干事Dr. Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala的领导下迎来了新的历史阶段。为纪念这一时刻,”停止资助过度捕捞运动 “在世贸组织总部前摆放了一座融化的鱼冰雕,敦促其成员履行任务,尽快达成协议,停止助长过度开发海洋鱼类资源的补贴。

The General Council of the World Trade Organization (WTO) began a historic term with newly appointed Director-General, Dr. Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, at the helm. To mark the occasion, the Stop Funding Overfishing campaign positioned an ice sculpture of a melting fish in front of the WTO’s headquarters, urging its members to deliver on their mandate by reaching an agreement as soon as possible to stop subsidies that contribute to the overexploitation of the ocean’s fish stocks.

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(2)2月初,中国公布了最新调整的《国家重点保护野生动物名录》。由于过去30年间中国物种保护形势变化巨大,此次调整新增517个物种种类,其中新增水生物种215种(类)。

At the beginning of February, China announced the latest adjustment of the List of National Key Wildlife Protection. Due to the huge changes in the conservation situation of Chinese species over the past 30 years, this adjustment added 517 species species, including 215 new aquatic species (classes).

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(3)在南海西沙海槽的峡谷中发现的大型塑料碎片堆场已成为深海污染的热点,其塑料丰度比其他被调查的峡谷高出1个数量级。这些大型堆积物是生物多样性研究的新热点。研究推测,大塑料可以促进无柄和一些自由生活的(软体动物)无脊椎动物的种群扩展,并影响深海底栖-大洋耦合过程。

Large plastic debris dumps found in canyons of the Xisha Trough, South China Sea have become hot spots for deep-sea pollution, with 1 order of magnitude higher abundance than in other investigated canyons. These large dumps are functioning as new biodiversity hot spots. It is hypothesized that macroplastics can boost population extension of sessile and some free-living (Mollusca) invertebrates and affect the deep-sea benthic-pelagic coupling process.

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(4)为支持打击非法、未报告和无管制的渔业执法,美国海岸警卫队Kimball号进行了为期两周的远征巡逻。此次任务包括代表中西太平洋渔业委员会等国际管理组织进行多边渔业执法。Kimball号的部署是 “蓝色太平洋行动 “的一部分,目标是维护整个印太地区的稳定和安全。

The Honolulu-based Coast Guard cutter Kimball wrapped up a two-week expeditionary patrol in support of counter-illegal, unreported and unregulated fisheries enforcement. The mission included multilateral fisheries enforcement on behalf of international management groups such as the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission. The Kimball deployment was part of Operation Blue Pacific, with goals of maintaining stability and security throughout the Indo-Pacific region.

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(5)华盛顿大学Hilborn实验室和“可持续渔业伙伴关系”(SFP)发布了其渔业改进项目数据库(FIP-DB)的更新版本,其数据来自全球所有249个渔业改良项目。

The Hilborn Lab at the University of Washington and the Sustainable Fisheries Partnership (SFP) have released an updated version of their Fishery Improvement Projects Database (FIP-DB) with data from all the globe’s 249 FIPs.

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观点 Perspectives

图片
蝠鲼的数量在过去的20年里急剧下降 | Jeff Rotman / Alamy 制

(1)David Sims:“1970年以来,全球大洋性鲨鱼和鳐鱼丰度下降了71%。研究涉及的31个物种中一半以上目前被认定为濒危,甚至是极度濒危。相比之下,1980年只有以浮游生物为食的姥鲨这一个物种被认定为濒危。这些海洋顶级捕食者的未来正在迅速恶化。”

David Sims:” This research arrives at the first global perspective on oceanic shark and ray population trends. Worldwide, oceanic shark and ray abundance has declined by 71% since 1970. More than half of the 31 species examined are now considered to be endangered, or even critically endangered. Compare this with 1980 when only one species, the plankton-feeding basking shark, was thought to be endangered. This indicates that the future for the ocean’s top predators is fast deteriorating.”

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(2)Richard S. Cottrell等:“有效的水产养殖政策需要避免过于简单的可持续性指标,如营养级。相反,根据物种群的具体养殖特性、管理技术和饲料配方的进步,采用经验得出的指标,对于实现养殖海产品的真正可持续选择至关重要。”

Richard S. Cottrell et al.:” Effective aquaculture policy needs to avoid overly simplistic sustainability indicators such as trophic level. Instead, employing empirically derived metrics based on the specific farmed properties of species groups, management techniques and advances in feed formulation will be crucial for achieving truly sustainable options for farmed seafood.”

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(3) Oscar Morton等:“一项新的分析发现,野生动物贩运正在对生物多样性产生严重的负面影响。为满足国际和国家贸易网络的需求而进行的狩猎和诱捕活动威胁到许多物种,甚至包括那些生活在保护区的物种。”

Oscar Morton et al.:” Wildlife trafficking is having a profound negative impact on biodiversity, a new analysis finds. Hunting and trapping to feed international and national trade networks threaten numerous species, even those living in protected areas.”

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(4)Adam Rees等:“需要充分了解所有商业捕鱼方法对生态系统的影响,以便更有效地管理我们的海洋环境。破坏性最强的移动式捕鱼方法相关的影响已得到充分的记录,这种方法被从一些部分保护区中被禁止。研究首次证明高水平的笼壶捕捞对建立珊瑚礁的表生生物群和商业目标物种的负面影响,并量化了可持续笼壶捕捞的阈值,表明在部分受保护的温带海洋保护区内发展管理良好的笼壶捕捞是重要的一步。”

Adam Rees et al.:” The ecosystem effects of all commercial fishing methods need to be fully understood in order to manage our marine environments more effectively. The impacts associated with the most damaging mobile fishing methods are well documented leading to such methods being removed from some partially protected areas. The research demonstrates for the first time negative effects associated with high levels of pot fishing effort both on reef building epibiota and commercially targeted species, as well as quantifying a threshold for sustainable pot fishing demonstrating a significant step towards developing well-managed pot fisheries within partially protected temperate MPAs.”

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(5)IISD:“就世贸组织渔业补贴谈判,关于对发展中国家和最不发达国家成员的特殊和差别待遇,代表们对应采用何种标准来确定有资格享受特殊待遇和过渡期的国家‘仍有不同意见’。成员们还审议了综合案文草案中有关助长产能过剩和过度捕捞的补贴的规定,以及各小组应如何处理渔业补贴争端的规则。”

IISD:” Regarding WTO negotiations on fisheries subsidies, on special and differential treatment for developing and LDC (the Least Developed Countries) members, delegates ‘continued to disagree’ on which criteria should be used to identify countries that would qualify for special treatment and transition periods. Members also considered provisions relating to subsidies contributing to overcapacity and overfishing in the draft consolidated text, and rules for how panels should handle fisheries subsidies disputes.”

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解读 Interpretations

(1)自2011年起,菲律宾政府在沙丁鱼产卵季节对各主要渔场实行禁渔期。禁渔期在每年的尾声至次年3月实施,对当地社区来说既是利好也是祸害:在该国南部的沙丁鱼之都三宝颜半岛,禁渔令提高了个体渔民的渔获量,而在菲律宾中部的米沙鄢海,渔获量却在减少。这两个地区执行禁渔令的情况各不相同,并强调需要评估这些措施的经济影响,特别是对边缘化渔民的影响。

Since 2011, the Philippine government has imposed a closed fishing season on various major fishing grounds during the sardine spawning season. Implemented during the tail end of the year until March the following year, the closed fishing season has been both a boon and bane for communities. In the sardine capital of the Zamboanga Peninsula in the country’s south, the ban has boosted catch sizes for artisanal fishers, while in the Visayan Sea in the central Philippines, catches have dwindled. Experts point to different implementations of the fishing ban in the two regions and highlight the need to assess the economic implications of the measures, particularly to marginalized fishers.

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(2)最邻近的市场的距离和规模(”市场引力”)已被证明对珊瑚礁鱼类群落(例如鲨鱼种群)有强烈的负面影响,而这可以通过建立禁渔区来缓解。然而,环境DNA分析证实了市场引力对海鳗的积极影响。研究推测这可能是市场附近的海鳗竞争者和捕食者减少的间接结果。

Proximity and size of the nearest anthropogenic market (‘market gravity’) have been shown to have strong negative effects on coral reef fish communities (e.g. sharks) that can be mitigated by the establishment of closed areas. However, environmental DNA analyses corroborated the positive effect of market gravity on morays. We hypothesize that the observed pattern could be the indirect result of the depletion of moray competitors and predators near anthropogenic markets.

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(3)本文研究了19个生态系统的现状和发展轨迹,研究区域从澳大利亚珊瑚礁到南极洲陆地,横跨58°纬度、覆盖7.7百万平方公里。来自全球气候变化和区域性人类影响的压力,以慢性“压力”和/或急性“脉冲”的形式出现,促使生态系统崩溃。广泛的生态系统崩溃表现是一个严峻的警告,必须采取行动。

The research examines the current state and recent trajectories of 19 ecosystems, spanning 58° of latitude across 7.7 M km2, from Australia’s coral reefs to terrestrial Antarctica. Pressures from global climate change and regional human impacts, occurring as chronic ‘presses’ and/or acute ‘pulses’, drive ecosystem collapse. The manifestation of widespread ecosystem collapse is a stark warning of the necessity to take action.

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(4)海洋储存的热量是大气层的几百倍,储存的碳是大气层的50倍,吸收的碳量比所有雨林的总和还要多。北大西洋是世界上最密集的碳汇:全球海洋30%的二氧化碳吸收量就发生在加拿大的“后院”。在加拿大致力于实现“净零碳”的未来并规划疫情后的经济复苏时,如果创新和投资降低了海洋吸收过量碳的能力,就会适得其反。海洋的作用被忽视的时间太长了,在规划2050年实现“零碳”的轨迹时,必须将其置于“碳讨论”的中心。

The ocean stores hundreds of times the heat and 50 times more carbon than the atmosphere, and takes up more carbon than all the rainforests combined. The North Atlantic Ocean is the most intense carbon sink in the world: 30 percent of the global ocean’s carbon dioxide removal occurs right in Canada’s backyard. Ocean carbon and heat absorption also provide a critical natural timescale against which we can measure our effectiveness in battling climate change. 

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学术 Academics

(1)【划区管理】欧胡岛的海洋保护区在保护珊瑚礁食草动物方面取得的成功有限

[Area-based management] O’ahu’s marine protected areas have limited success in protecting coral reef herbivores

作为研究对象的海洋保护区中草食性鱼类的大小结构和密度较小,限制了它们在种群层面的功能和繁殖贡献。虽然海洋保护区是珊瑚礁环境中一个受欢迎的渔业管理工具,但海洋保护区对欧胡岛周围草食性鱼类和海胆种群的益处有限,这表明,在考虑扩大现有海洋保护区网络之前,需要普遍地改进渔业管理和执法。

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(2)【划区管理】海洋保护区与海洋空间规划之间的复杂关系:建立一个分析框架

[Area-based management] The complex relationships between marine protected areas and marine spatial planning: Towards an analytical framework

实践中,海洋空间规划(MSP)和海洋保护区(MPA)的指定往往是同时进行的,两者之间的结合相对较少,部分原因是海洋保护的历史较长,已有的制度框架不能简单地归入MSP进程。然而,有一系列的选项可以使这两套进程更加紧密地联系起来。这些选择可以包括:通过MSP改善以前存在的MPA的现状;促进建立多用途MPA。

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(3)【划区管理】采用数据驱动的方法选划国家管辖范围以外海洋区域的优先保护区域

[Area-based management] Data-driven approach for highlighting priority areas for protection in marine areas beyond national jurisdiction

世界各大洋都有建立海洋保护区(MPA)的高度优先区域。保护30%的关键生物多样性需要保护至少24%的国家管辖范围以外海洋区域(ABNJ)。规划算法和全球专家两种方式了许多相同的ABNJ优先领域。当代保护区可以帮助现在和气候改变后未来的生物多样性。

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(4)【海洋治理】评估和管理南极海洋生态系统中科学与政策的互动

[Marine ecosystem] Science and Policy Interactions in Assessing and Managing Marine Ecosystems in the Southern Ocean

这篇“观点”以2018年召开的南大洋海洋生态系统评估会议为背景,从政策制定者和科学评估与建议的终端用户的角度出发,探讨了科学与政策之间的关系。科学建议往往会因研究和知识的程度以及环境现状和未来状况的不确定性而受到限制。负责保护南极环境的机构必须根据现有的最佳建议进行决策。在没有把握的情况下就不作出决定,是有悖于《南极条约体系》文书中所载的保护南极环境的明确义务。因犹豫不决而排除了未来保护环境的各种选择,要么带来更大的风险,要么也是与根据不完整的建议作出决定,然后在未来积极管理该决定一样。

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(5)【划区管理】环境DNA元编码作为海洋保护区的生物监测工具

[Area-based management] eDNA metabarcoding as a biomonitoring tool for marine protected areas

本研究利用环境DNA(eDNA)元编码和水下视觉普查调查比较了加州圣克鲁斯岛附近“天蝎”国家海洋保护区内外的鱼类群落。eDNA的结果捕获了76%的鱼种和95%的鱼属,而这都是在配对水下视觉普查中观察到的。eDNA检测到了另外23个在配对水下视觉普查中没有记录的鱼种,但以前的水下视觉普查报告过。位置(50米)和地点(约1000米)的eDNA特征的显著变化表明eDNA对解决关键问题的敏感性,如海洋保护区内外的群落组成。结果表明,eDNA元编码对监测海洋生态系统的效用为水下视觉普查方法提供了重要的补充工具。

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(6)【鱼类种群】全球大洋性鲨鱼和鳐鱼长达半个世纪的数量下降

[Marine biology] Half a century of global decline in oceanic sharks and rays

研究发现,自1970年以来,由于相对捕捞压力增加了18倍,全球大洋性鲨鱼和鳐鱼的数量减少了71%。这种枯竭增加了全球海洋生物灭绝的风险,已经到达了构成这一重要功能组合(大洋性鲨鱼和鳐鱼)的四分之三的物种面临灭绝威胁的程度。迫切需要制定严格禁令和以科学为基础的预防性渔获量限制,以避免种群崩溃、避免破坏生态功能、促进物种恢复。

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(7)【渔业管理】衡量破坏性和非法捕捞对海盗行为的全球影响:空间分析

[Fisheries management] Measuring the global impact of destructive and illegal fishing on maritime piracy: A spatial analysis

研究证明,特定地点的海盗行为发生率与高兼捕量和破坏生境的捕鱼量有关。此外,非法、未报告和无管制的捕捞活动对海盗行为的影响特别明显。这些研究结果突出表明,除了执法之外,还需要采取反海盗的解决办法,包括对非法的或被脆弱的沿海地区当地渔民视为对小型渔业经济有害的捕捞行为进行监管。

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其他资料 Other resources

【生物多样性】揭示生物多样性上的投资者行为
[Biodiversity] Unearthing investor action on biodiversity
报告/Report


【气候·海洋】气候、海洋和安全:应对海洋驱动的安全挑战
[Climate & ocean] Climate, ocean and security: response to ocean-driven security challenges
报告/Report


【养殖业】水产养殖用技术纺织品:为养殖业提供环保、可持续和盈利的解决方案
[Aquaculture] Technical textiles for aquaculture: an environmental-friendly, sustainable and profitable solution for your fish farming business
专栏/Column


活动 Events

>>预告 Upcoming Events

2021年03月16日 网络研讨会 海洋空间规划传播:令人振奋的机构间合作时代
2021.03.16 Webinar Communicating MSP Webinar – An Inspiring era of cooperation between institutions
详情/Detail


2021年03月16日 网络研讨会 气候对海底拖网捕捞的影响:英国脱欧后的沉积物碳储量管理
2021.03.16 Webinar The climate impacts of offshore bottom trawling: Managing sediment carbon storage in the UK post-Brexit
详情/Detail


2021年03月18日 网络研讨会 2021年渔业季前瞻
2021.03.18 Webinar 2021 Fishing Season Forecast
详情/Detail


2021年03月23日 网络研讨会 “2025年可持续金枪鱼承诺”倡议发布会
2021.03.23 Webinar Launch of the 2025 Pledge towards Sustainable Tuna (25PST)
详情/Detail


2021年03月24日 网络研讨会 气候变化下为养护和渔业目标而变化的海洋保护区
2021.03.24 Webinar Shifting MPAs for conservation and fisheries under a changing climate
详情/Detail


2021年03月25日 网络研讨会 疫情影响的产业强烈拥护“海产品可追溯性全球对话”新标准
2021.03.25 Webinar COVID Impacted Industry Strongly Embraces New GDST Standards
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>>回顾 Recordings

2021年03月02日 网络研讨会 “力挽狂澜”:如何为恢复海洋可持续性融资(早会)
2021.03.02 Webinar Turning the Tide: How to Finance a Sustainable Ocean Recovery – Morning webinar
详情/Detail


2021年03月02日 网络研讨会 “力挽狂澜”:如何为恢复海洋可持续性融资(晚会)
2021.03.02 Webinar Turning the Tide: How to Finance a Sustainable Ocean Recovery – Afternoon webinar
详情/Detail


>>其他 Others

本简报两周更新一期,往期内容可以查看这里。 如果您在简报内容或形式上有任何意见或建议,欢迎发邮件至ocean@ghub.org告诉我们,也欢迎您将《蓝色脉搏》推荐给同事和朋友

我们正在跟踪新冠疫情导致的海洋相关国际会议安排的变动,最新的信息在这里