第13期 | 蓝色脉搏·海洋生命共同体速递



导语 Introduction




The impact of climate change on the polar ocean draws our attention again. In the Academic section, there are several papers discussing the existing changes of sea ice and water column and potential impacts associated with different warming scenarios.




The design and management of the MPAs determines the cost and benefit of them. Palau is hosting the Our Ocean Conference this year. Its ocean protection actions have been widely commended. However, those actions have caused unexpected impacts. An article in the Perspective section discussed those problems. The academic section of this issue also has a paper discussing the impact of different scenarios of MPA in the Scotia Sea, Antarctica. Both climate change and MPA will be discussed again at the annual meeting of the Commission on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources next month (online).

时讯 News

Getty Images | 制

(1) 多国海洋科学家最近在加拉帕戈斯群岛深海发现了31种新的无脊椎动物。这31个物种分别是,10种竹珊瑚,4种八角珊瑚,12个新海绵物种和4种新的扁龙虾,还包括在群岛周围的太平洋深海中观察到的一个新种海蛇尾。

International marine scientists have recently discovered 31 new invertebrate species in the deep waters of the Galapagos Islands. The 31 species are 10 species of bamboo coral, 4 species of octocorals, 12 new sponge species and 4 new species of squat lobster, including a new species of brittle star observed in the deep Pacific Ocean around the archipelago.


(2) 新西兰政府上周宣布计划在345艘渔船上安装摄像头。增加使用船上摄像头得到了本届联合政府的支持,旨在提高渔业透明度。摄像机将改善渔业管理信息,并提供国内和国际市场所要求的透明度。更广泛地使用船上摄像机将提高新西兰作为优质、可持续和值得信赖的海产品生产国的声誉。

New Zealand’s government last week announced plans to put cameras on board 345 fishing vessels. The increase in the use of on-board cameras is supported by the current coalition government and is aimed at providing more transparency in the fisheries. Cameras will improve fisheries management information and provide the transparency demanded by domestic and international markets. Wider use of on-board cameras will enhance New Zealand’s reputation as a producer of premium, sustainable, and trusted seafood.


(3) 欧洲议会和欧盟当时的28个成员国政府于2013年就欧盟共同渔业政策(CFP)的深远改革达成一致意见。目标是通过设定恢复种群、维持健康的生态系统和保障欧盟船队稳定、有利可图的渔业的目标,使渔业具有可持续性。CFP要求各国部长 “尽可能在2015年之前确保所有种群的可持续开发率,最迟在2020年之前逐步递增”。然而,随着2020年结束过度捕捞的最后期限过去,欧盟渔业管理仍不符合科学建议。

The European Parliament and the European Union’s then-28 Member State governments agreed in 2013 on far-reaching reforms to the EU’s Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). The goal is to make fishing sustainable by setting objectives to restore stocks, maintain healthy ecosystems and safeguard stable, profitable fisheries for the EU fleet. The CFP required ministers to ensure sustainable exploitation rates “by 2015 where possible and, on a progressive, incremental basis at the latest by 2020 for all stocks.” Now with the 2020 deadline for ending overfishing passed, EU fisheries management is still not in line with scientific advice.


(4) 西班牙金枪鱼协会AGAC,即大型金枪鱼冷冻库协会,已全面进入海洋管理委员会(MSC)评估。成功的申请将使全球超过8%的金枪鱼总捕获量被加入到生态标签的可持续发展认证计划中。目前正在对由物种、种群和捕鱼区定义的12个不同的评估单位进行评估,通过评估程序并被推荐认证的单位有资格获得使用MSC生态标签的许可。

Spanish tuna association AGAC, the Association of Large Tuna Freezers, has entered full Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) assessment. A successful application will result in more than 8 percent of the world’s total tuna catch being added to the eco-label’s sustainability certification scheme. Twelve different units of assessment defined by species, stock, and fishing area are being assessed, with units passing assessment process and recommended for certification eligible to be licensed to use the MSC eco-label.


(5) 欧盟委员会希望加强对萎缩的波罗的海鳕鱼种群的保护。它建议大幅削减2021年波罗的海鳕鱼的总捕捞限额(TACs),新的建议建立在目前种群持续减少并低于健康水平的认识之上。对于西部波罗的海鳕鱼,它建议将TAC减少11%,至3395公吨。此外,它还希望维持2020年通过的额外保护措施,包括在整个地区的产卵禁渔期和对休闲渔民的限制。此外,在东部较深的水域,总可捕量的使用仅限于副渔获物,并禁止娱乐性捕捞。

The European Commission looks to increase protection of shrunken Baltic cod stocks. It has proposed large cuts to the total allowable catches (TACs) of Baltic cod for 2021, with the new advice recognizing that stocks have continued to decrease and are below healthy levels. For western Baltic cod, it recommends an 11 percent reduction in the TAC to 3,395 metric tons. In addition, it wants to maintain the additional protection measures adopted for 2020, including a spawning closure period in the entire area and limits for recreational fishermen. Also, in the deeper waters of the eastern part, the TAC use is limited to by-catches and recreational fishing is forbidden.


观点 Perspectives

帕劳约20%的劳动力受雇于旅游业,J.W.Alker / Alamy | 摄

(1) Bernadette H. Carreon:“大型海洋保护区成为帕劳大选辩论的焦点。将离任的帕劳总统Tommy Remengesau正面临一股日益高涨的批评浪潮,矛头直指曾被认为是该国最伟大成就之一的一片海洋保护区。帕劳国家海洋保护区被联合国海洋大会誉为’全球最具雄心的海洋保护措施之一’。保护区自2020年1月1日起全面投入运作,其目的是保护帕劳的近海鱼类种群以及全球金枪鱼种群。”

Bernadette H. Carreon:” Large marine protected areas are at the centre of Palau’s election debate. Outgoing Palauan President Tommy Remengesau is facing a rising tide of criticism over a marine reserve that was once considered one of the country’s greatest achievements. The Palau National Marine Sanctuary has been hailed as ‘one of the world’s most ambitious marine conservation measures’ by the United Nations Ocean Assembly. The sanctuary, which will be fully operational from 1 January 2020, aims to protect Palau’s offshore fish stocks as well as global tuna stocks.”


(2) Jason Holland:“粮农组织在最新一期的《世界渔业和水产养殖业状况》报告中认识到,在捕捞渔业中,通过为渔民提供更准确的天气预报和卫星定位,新产品或服务创新可以改变他们活动,使之更安全、更精确、更可预测。据该组织称,这些工具为水产养殖生产者也提供了类似的好处。这两个行业都可以从这些旨在收集和安全存储信息的新兴技术中受益,以帮助更好地遵守更严格的监管和可追溯性要求。”

Jason Holland:” In the latest edition of its “The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture” report, the FAO recognizes that in capture fisheries, new product or service innovations have the potential to change activities by providing fishers with more accurate weather forecasts and satellite positioning that can in turn make their operations safer, more precise, and more predictable. Such tools offer similar benefits to aquaculture producers, and that both sectors can benefit from those emerging technologies designed to gather and safely store information to help improve compliance with stricter regulatory and traceability requirements, according to the organization.”


(3) Mohammad Arju:”孟加拉国、印度和缅甸已经商定了它们在孟加拉湾的边界,但鱼和渔民都不受专属经济区地图上的线的约束。为了获得更好的渔获,渔民们有意无意地越过边界。由于船多鱼少,冲突是常见的。在缺乏积极合作的情况下,渔民继续被其他国家逮捕,而过度捕捞则使鱼类数量减少。“ 

Mohammad Arju:” Bangladesh, India and Myanmar have agreed their borders in the Bay of Bengal, but neither fish nor fishers are bound by the lines on the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) map. In the hope of a better catch, fishers cross boundaries, knowingly or not. As more boats chase fewer fish, clashes are common. In the absence of active cooperation, fishers continue to be jailed in other countries while overfishing drives down fish populations.”   


(4) 经济学人集团|世界海洋倡议:”由可持续海洋经济高级别小组委托编写的一份新报告概述了四项具有最大潜力的投资,以确保海洋健康和财富。这些措施包括:保护和恢复红树林生境、扩大海上风电生产规模、国际航运业低碳化以及增加可持续来源的海洋蛋白质的生产。”

The Economist Group | World Ocean Initiative:” A new report commissioned by the High Level Panel for a Sustainable Ocean Economy outlines the four investments with the biggest potential to secure ocean health and wealth. The report focuses on four interventions: conserving and restoring mangrove habitats, scaling up offshore wind production, decarbonizing the international shipping sector, and increasing the production of sustainably sourced ocean-based proteins.”


(5) Harriet Harden-Davies等:“制定一项新的具有法律约束力的国家管辖范围以外海洋生物多样性养护和可持续利用国际文书(BBNJ协定)的工作已进入最后谈判阶段。我们认为,自然权利的观点可以加强现有的海洋管理规范,激励采取新的措施,提高BBNJ协定的有效性和公平性,并在国家管辖范围以外的地区中实现全球海洋管理。”

Harriet Harden-Davies et al.:” The development of a new international legally binding instrument for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ agreement) is in the final negotiation phase. We argue that a Rights of Nature perspective can reinforce existing ocean governance norms, inspire new measures to enhance the effectiveness and equitability of the BBNJ agreement and enable global ocean stewardship in areas beyond national jurisdiction.”


学术 Academics

(1) 【气候·海洋 北冰洋对来自亚北极海域异常对流的反应使北冰洋发生北移

[Climate·Ocean] Borealization of the Arctic Ocean in Response to Anomalous Advection From Sub-Arctic Seas



(2) 【气候·海洋 从过去的视角看当代的北极气候突变

[Climate·Ocean] Past perspectives on the present era of abrupt Arctic climate change



(3) 【气候·海洋 暖年南极沿海环境中微观和中观浮游生物的演替问题

[Climate·Ocean] Micro- and mesozooplankton successions in an Antarctic coastal environment during a warm year



(4) 【划区管理诀窍何在?剖析与海洋保护区和从斯科舍海内迁出的捕鱼相关的利益和成本

[Area-based Management] What’s the catch? Profiling the benefits and costs associated with marine protected areas and displaced fishing in the Scotia Sea



(5) 【气候·海洋 温度诱导的南极磷虾孵化失败和幼体畸形

[Climate·Ocean]Temperature–Induced Hatch Failure and Nauplii Malformation in Antarctic Krill



(6) 【海洋生态 营养链中的环节:建立不同海洋制度下原地海洋学、磷虾和蓝鲸分布之间的功能关系模型 

[Marine Ecology] Links in the trophic chain: Modeling functional relationships between in situ oceanography, krill, and blue whale distribution under different oceanographic



其他资料 Other Intel

【生物多样性】 通向生物多样性缔约方会议第十五届会议及其后的变革之路:非洲集团与欧洲联盟在埃斯瓦蒂尼(斯威士兰)的对话

[Biodiversity] The road for change, towards COP15 and beyond: A dialogue in Eswatini (Swaziland) between the African Group and the European Union


【生物多样性】 《中国珊瑚礁状况报告2019》(提取码:Z52U)

[Biodiversity] State of China’s Coral Reefs Report 2019 (Extract Code: Z52U)


【渔业管理】 全球金枪鱼联盟 | 金枪鱼2020年可追溯性声明环境可持续性工具书

[Fisheries Management] Global Tuna Alliance | Tuna 2020 Traceability Declaration Environmental Sustainability Toolkit


【极地海洋】 播客: 为中国的下一代保护南大洋

[Polar Ocean] Podcast: Protecting the Southern Ocean for China’s next generation


活动 Events

>>预告 Announcements

2020年9月23日 网络研讨会 “循环资本”海洋基金:开创性的防止海洋塑料的1亿美元投资基金
2020.9.23 Webinar Circulate Capital Ocean Fund: A pioneering, $100M investment fund to prevent ocean plastic

2020年9月24日 网络研讨会 海洋年代线上系列:共同设计 “海洋年代”所需的科学知识
2020.9.24 Webinar The Ocean Decade Virtual Series: Co-designing the Science we need for the Ocean Decade

2020年9月25日 现场会议 2020“中国海洋经济论坛”
2020.9.25 Forum 2020 “China Ocean Economy Forum”

2020年9月25日 网络研讨会 南亚和东南亚的生物多样性缔约方大会第十五届会议的雄心是什么?
2020.9.25 Webinar What is the ambition for biodiversity COP15 in South Asia and Southeast Asia?

2020年9月30日 网络研讨会 从 “全产业链 “的角度重构可持续海产品的叙事方式
2020.9.30 Reframing the Sustainable Seafood Narrative by Shifting to a “Whole Chain” Perspective

>>回顾 Reviews

2020年6月08日 联合国世界海洋日官方门户网站
2020.6.08 The Official United Nations World Oceans Day Portal

2020年7月29日 海洋行动之友 | 海洋保护和保育:目标与努力
2020.7.29 Friends of Ocean Actions | Marine protection and conservation: goals and efforts

2020年9月01日 生物多样性:优先产业的路径是什么?
2020.9.01 Biodiversity: What are the Pathways for Priority Sectors?

2020年9月02日 与不可能的利益攸关方合作防止海洋废弃物的产生
2020.9.02 Working with unlikely stakeholders to prevent marine debris

2020年9月03日 蓝色复苏和延迟的海洋 “超级 “年
2020.9.03 The blue recovery and the delayed ocean ‘super’ year

2020年9月08日 人类与海洋星球的关系
2020.9.08 The Human Relationship with our Ocean Planet
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题图:Waves break along the Chukchi Sea coast on Alaska’s North Slope in an Aug. 2012 file photo. The Arctic Ocean stands to see higher waves as it becomes more like the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. (BOEM)