Issue 53 | Blue Pulse: Marine Conservation Bulletin

日期:

The Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) adopted the Fisheries Subsidies Agreement, which is a major step towards ending harmful fisheries subsidies, but there is still a long way to go in future negotiations. In the meantime, civil society organisations, large companies and governments worldwide are all on the same page in the fight against illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing.

导语 Introduction

关键点一

世界贸易组织(WTO)就禁止支持非法、未报告和无管制(IUU)捕鱼和禁止对被认为是过度开发的渔业的有害补贴达成了协议,也是本期快讯编辑周期内的里程碑式事件。最终通过的协议中,删去了对于导致产能过剩补贴(并不直接导致过度捕捞)的相关条款,可以说是一个“为前进舍弃完美”的典型案例。本期时讯中收录了相关新闻,学术版块也有关于这一议题的论文。

Highlight 1

The World Trade Organization struck a deal on an agreement prohibiting support for illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing and banning subsidies for fisheries deemed to be overexploited, and It is also the milestone event of this week's bulletin. The final adopted agreement removed specific definitions of subsidies that lead to overcapacity(which doesn't have a direct connection with overfishing). The agreement is a case of "perfection giving way to progress", and we believe that it can be called a "great comma". The news is included in the News section. In the Academic section, there is also a relevant paper.

关键点二

打击IUU需要政府、企业和民间社会的通力合作,在产业链的关键位置拿住问题的“七寸”。读者可以通过本期看到这些关键位置。在时讯版块,可以看到有民间团体合作为能力不足的政府提供数据和能力建设支持,政府组织直接处分IUU船队,保险公司也参与到其中。解读版块中则收录有港口国在这方面的行动。其他资料中也有一份关于政府责任的报告。

Highlight 2

The fight against IUU requires the full cooperation of government, enterprises and civil society to choke the problem at the key nodes of the industry chain. Readers can see these key positions in this issue. In the News section, you can find the cooperation of civil society to provide data and capacity-building support to governments with insufficient capacity, the direct disposition of the IUU fleet by government organizations, as well as the involvement of insurance companies. Port State actions in this regard are included in the Interpretation section. A report on government responsibility is also included in the Other Resources.


时讯 News

MC12 闭幕式,2022年6月17日 | WTO/Jay Louvion

(1)世界贸易组织(WTO)就禁止支持非法、未报告和无管制(IUU)捕鱼和禁止对被认为是过度开发的渔业的有害补贴达成了协议。世贸组织总干事Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala称,该协议是朝着遏制渔船产能过剩和过度捕捞的补贴迈出的 "第一步,但是是意义重大的一步"。他还总结道,这项协议 "给了我们足够理由去相信一个更好的未来,即战略合作将能够与日益增长的战略竞争同时存在"。

The World Trade Organization struck a deal on an agreement prohibiting support for illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing and banning subsidies for fisheries deemed to be overexploited. WTO Director-General Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala said that the deal was a "first but significant step forward" toward curbing subsidies for fleet overcapacity and overfishing by ending subsidies for fishing on the unregulated high seas. He also concluded that this deal "give us cause to hope that strategic cooperation will be able to exist alongside growing strategic competition".

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(2)新英格兰水族馆、康奈尔大学和美国LAUTEC公司支持马萨诸塞州的Right Wind项目,以支持海上风电开发采取措施保护濒危物种北大西洋露脊鲸。科学家说,该项目开发的工具将大大减少人类行为干扰濒危露脊鲸栖息地的机会。

The Right Wind project in Massachusetts supported by New England Aquarium, Cornell University, and LAUTEC US may help offshore wind developers protect the endergandered species, the North Atlantic right whale. Research scientists said that, with new tools being developed, the combined date from the project will greatly reduce the chances of human behavior interrupting the endangered right whale habitats.

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(3)三家基于数据开展倡导工作的组织建立了联合分析小组(JAC),以支持低收入的沿海国家在打击非法、未报告和无管制(IUU)捕鱼的斗争中更好地获得渔业情报、开展数据分析和能力建设援助。这个JAC系统将得到更多商业上可获得的海上活动的无线电数据。它还可以允许分配那些可以用来完善执法资源的投放的信息。

A new collaboration by three data-driven campaign groups, Joint Analytical Cell (JAC), aims to give lower-income coastal states better access to fisheries intelligence, data analysis, and capacity-building assistance in the battle against illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing. This new JAC system could bring greater access to commercially available radio data on activity at sea. It could also allow distribution of information that could be further used to refine the allocation of enforcement resources.

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(4)在塞舌尔举行的印度洋金枪鱼委员会(IOTC)第26届会议上,一支多年来以在大西洋非法作业嫌疑而闻名的船队已被列入黑名单。现在该船队被禁止在大西洋捕捞金枪鱼,并被其保险方终止合同。

A fleet of vessels, known for operating illegally in the Atlantic for many years, has been blacklisted by the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC) at the 26th session meeting of the IOTC in Seychelles. The fleet is now being banned from catching tuna in the Atlantic and being dropped by its insurer.

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观点 Perspectives

生长在浅水和有遮挡的沿海地区的海草 | Somnuk Krobkum, Getty

(1)Martin Montague: 海洋在对抗气候变化的斗争中的重要性是不言自明的,而大海的各种动植物中,海草是应对气候变化最有效的自然解决方案之一。在所有海草种类中,波西多尼亚海草是最重要的一种。它不仅是地球上最长寿的生物,而且它还能抵抗微生物降解。然而,在过去的二十年里,其数量却在不断减少。

Martin Montague: The ocean proves itself essential in the fight against climate change, and seagrass is one of the most effective natural solutions to climate change. Among all kinds of species of seagrass, Posidonia Oceanica is the most important one. It's not only the longest-living organism on the planet but also resistant to microbial degradation. However, the decline of seagrass has been increasing over the past two decades. 

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(2)Peter Thomson:联合国秘书长海洋特使彼得-汤姆森称,为了应对海洋酸化、塑料污染和其他许多危及海洋物种的紧迫问题,2022年的各种会议为国际社会的海洋行动提供了决定性的机会。今年有六个主要的国际大会(第五届联合国环境大会、世贸组织部长级会议、BBNJ、CBD第十五届缔约方大会、联合国海洋会议和联合国气候变化框架公约第二十七届缔约方大会),每一个会议的成果都可以产生深远的影响,阻止现状恶化。

Peter Thomson: UN Secretary-General's Special Envoy for the Ocean, Ambassador Peter Thomson said that, in order to cope with ocean acidification, plastic pollution and many other urgent problems that are jeopardizing marine species, the year 2022 presents the international community an unparalleled opportunity for decisive ocean action. Six major international gatherings (UNEA5, WTO Ministerial Conference, BBNJ, COP15, UN Ocean Conference, and UNFCCC COP27) are taking place this year, each of which can make a real difference to the status quo to stop the decline.

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(3)周秋麟:海洋蓝碳以溶解碳泵、生物碳泵和碳酸盐泵等过程将大量的碳吸收、固定和储存在海洋中。研究、保护并发挥生物碳泵的潜力不仅可以保持海洋生态系统的稳定,也可以凭借海洋生物超长的生命周期捕获并固存海量的碳。海洋带蓝碳生态系统是地球上固碳率最高的生态系统,随着对退化和损失的蓝碳生态系统进行修复,到2030年的时候,每年可以多吸收8亿吨碳,海洋蓝碳无疑会在碳中和的事业中提供大量的助力。

Qiulin Zhou:Marine blue carbon could absorb, fixe, and store large amounts of carbon in the ocean through processes such as the dissolved carbon pump, the biogenic carbon pump, and the carbonate pump. Studying, protecting, and exploiting the potential of the biogenic carbon pump not only keeps marine ecosystems stable but also captures and sequestrates vast amounts of carbon through the extraordinarily long life cycles of marine organisms. Oceanic blue carbon ecosystems have the highest carbon sequestration rate on the planet, and with the restoration of degraded and lost blue carbon ecosystems that could absorb an additional 800 million tons of carbon per year by 2030, oceanic blue carbon will undoubtedly provide a massive boost in  carbon neutrality.

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(4)陈冀俍:今年3月,联合国海洋法公约下关于公海生物多样性保护协定(BBNJ)的第四次谈判落下帷幕。谈判中存在一个重要的法律依据问题,即在同一片公海可能覆盖着不同类型的行业性国际管理机构,这些机构没有足够的法律权力来设立海洋保护区,所以需要BBNJ协定来发挥法律基础的作用。在科学的引领和支持下,BBNJ协定有望为其他行业性国际组织的工作起到敦促和引领的作用。一旦通过,许多国家都会产生国内海洋管理体制协调或者调整的需要。

Jiliang Chen:In March this year, the fourth negotiation on the treaty to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity in the high seas (BBNJ) under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea came to a close. An important legal basis issue of the negotiations is that the same high seas may be covered by different types of sectoral international management bodies that do not have sufficient legal authority to establish marine protected areas. As a result, the BBNJ agreement is needed to act on a legal basis. With scientific support, the BBNJ Agreement is expected to act as a catalyst and leader for the work of other sectoral international organizations. Once it is adopted, the need for harmonization or adjustment of domestic marine management systems will arise in many countries.

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解读 Interpretations

塞拉利昂水域,渔业监督员正在接近一艘西班牙金枪鱼船。 | Pierre Gleizes, 绿色和平组织 制

(1)外对话:是什么杀死了南非毛皮海狮?

China Dialogue: What's killing South Africa's seals?

成千上万只瘦弱的海狮尸体被冲上开普敦海岸,研究人员通过处理和研究海狮的遗体,试图查清海洋生态系统正在面临的压力。软骨藻酸中毒和食物不足导致的饥饿被认为是导致海狮大量死亡的重要原因,同时,研究人员声称海狮种群密度过高可能也是原因之一。气候变暖导致的鱼类分布变化、带有神经毒素的藻类大量繁殖、海狮捕猎者数量减少导致的种群密度变化……究竟是什么原因导致海狮的生存困境,目前科学家还尚未能给出定论。

Thousands of emaciated seals have been washing up along the Cape coast. By processing and studying the remains of them, researchers are trying to get to the bottom of the pressures that the marine ecosystem is facing. Acidosis from cartilaginous algae and starvation due to lack of food are thought to be two important causes of the fur seals' die-offs. Researchers also claim that high Cape fur seal population densities may also play a role. Changes in fish distribution due to warming temperature, algal blooms with neurotoxins, and changes in population density due to a decline in the number of their predators....... Scientists have not yet been able to determine what is causing the sea lions' plight.

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(2)中外对话:《港口国措施协定》详解:这份条约如何打击非法捕捞?

China Dialogue: The treaty that aims to end illegal fishing, explained

非法、不报告和不受管制(IUU)的捕捞活动是全球海洋面临的最大的挑战之一,每年会造成260亿至500亿美元的损失。《港口国措施协定》要求缔约国把港口的执法行动作为对悬挂外国国旗的船只进行边境管制的一种形式。这种方式原则上把从事IUU活动的船只拒之门外,他们被迫得付出更大的经济代价才能让渔获物登陆。当从事IUU捕捞的船只发现无利可图,IUU的活动也就停止了。协定已经生效六年,各国对协定的有效落实和协调一致是其发挥作用的关键。

Illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing is one of the greatest challenges facing global oceans, potentially losing between $26 billion and $50 billion each year. The Port State Measures Agreement requires parties to take port enforcement actions as a form of border control for foreign-flagged vessels. This approach in principle shut out vessels that profit from IUU activities, who are forced to pay a greater economic price to land their catches. When vessels engaged in IUU fishing found it unprofitable, IUU activities would cease. The Agreement came into force 6 years, and its effective implementation and coherence among countries are key to its functioning.

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(3)环境保护基金会:专注于领导力——为小规模渔业构建一个可持续的未来

Environmental Defense Fund:  Leadership in focus — building to a more sustainable future for small-scale fisheries

小型渔业雇用了全球90%的渔工,并且每年提供了世界上近一半的渔获量。然而,在政策制定的过程中,他们经常被边缘化。在2022年世界海洋日,Acumen Academy和环境保护基金宣布成立首届适应性小型渔业领导力孵化项目,其目的是支持社区领袖开展大胆想象和改造他们的渔业体系。

Small-scale fisheries employ 90% of all fish workers globally, supplying nearly half of the world's fish catch each year. However, they are routinely marginalized in policy-making processes. On World Ocean Day 2022, Acumen Academy and Environmental Defense Fund announced the inaugural Resilient Small-Scale Fisheries Leadership Accelerator, whose role is to make an investment in leaders bold enough to reimagine and transform the fishery system they work in.

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(4)Mongabay: 海洋的“希望”与环保主义者Charles Clover的问答环节

Mongabay: “Tendrils of hope” for the ocean: Q&A with conservationist Charles Clover

《海洋再野化》一书的作者Charles Clover认为,通过恢复生态系统以及简单地让自然界自我修复,可以使海洋重新焕发生机。Clover本人可以说是一个海洋乐观主义者,他把海洋生物的描述为 "世界上最大的可解决的问题"。他认为,野化可以通过新的渔业管理方法、建立海洋保护区以及保护已知可固碳的海洋部分来实现。

The writer of the book "Rewilding the Sea", Charles Clover, believes that the sea can be rewilded through the reinstatement of ecosystems as well as by simply allowing nature to repair itself. Clover himself can be described as an ocean optimist that he described the destruction of ocean life as the "world's largest solvable problem". He argues that the rewilding can be achieved through new approaches to fisheries management, the creation of marine protected areas, and the protection of parts of the ocean known to sequester carbon.

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学术 Academics

(1)【海洋治理】建立、通告和维护:太平洋岛屿论坛核心参与国关于保护海域宣言的国家层面的“一揽子”实践方案

[Ocean Governance] Establishment, Notification, and Maintenance: The Package of State Practice at the Heart of the Pacific Islands Forum Declaration on Preserving Maritime Zones

本文结合海平面上升对基线和海域的影响对《应对在气候变化相关的海平面上升所导致的海域问题宣言》(PIF宣言)做出了综合性评价。作者认为,《PIF宣言》的意义在于其对《联合国海洋法公约》更加清晰的定位:其不仅提供了解读和主张,还极力让人们关注到宣言中国家层面上实践操作的实质。文章概述了《PIF宣言》的产生背景,然后重点突出了在这一背景下国家实践的三个要素,最后概述了这些实践行为对未来工作的意义和贡献。

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(2)【蓝色经济】回顾”人类世”以来现有和潜在的蓝碳对减缓气候变化的贡献

[Blue Economy] A review of existing and potential blue carbon contributions to climate change mitigation in the Anthropocene

针对减少碳排放中的负排放技术,文章回顾了”人类世“至今初期海洋初级生产者(包括蓝碳植物、微藻和大型藻类)碳捕获和封存的变化,并评估和比较了其通过生物地球工程方法实现碳中和,和缓解气候变化的潜力。在海洋初级生物者的数量持续减少的大背景下,作者认为,在蓝碳植物中,大型海藻的固碳能力和提升其有效覆盖的潜力在技术和经济上都是最合适的。但作者同时指出,大面积种植大型海藻的生态影响还亟待进一步评估。

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(3)【气候海洋】海南岛红树林中碳存量的空间分布和驱动因素

[Climate & Ocean] Spatial patterns and driving factors of carbon stocks in mangrove forests on Hainan Island, China

红树林在海洋蓝碳中起着举足轻重的作用,但是对红树林碳储量的空间分布的研究受到多方面因素的制约,至今尚未量化。通过尺度提升法和野外调查结合图像分析,研究人员发现,沉积物氮含量和植物物种多样性对海南岛红树林总碳储量分布的正向驱动作用最强。文章指出,海南岛红树林碳储量的空间格局因地而异,土壤养分可达性(尤其是氮含量)是调控碳储量变化的最主导因素。

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(4)【蓝色经济】补贴探索者:一个用来提高对改革渔业补贴的生态和经济影响的决策支持工具

[Blue Economy] SubsidyExplorer: A decision-support tool to improve our understanding of the ecological and economic effects of reforming fisheries subsidies

为了防止渔业补贴成为可持续发展的阻力,世界贸易组织(WTO)已通过一项协议来终止过度的渔业补贴。然而,这一行为的连带后果的不确定性阻碍了谈判。文章提出了一种将生物经济模型转化为交互式在线决策支持工具的新方法,其通过渔业数据的使用,使得用户可以直接比较不同补贴改革方案的相对水平。

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(5)【海洋生态】《国际南大洋海底地形图》第二版

[Marine Ecosystem]The International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean Version 2

南大洋是海洋-大气耦合气候系统的重要组成部分,其拥有地球上最大的洋流——南极环极洋流。同时,它也被认为是吸收二氧化碳的最重要的海域。《国际南大洋海底地形图》(IBCSO)最初代表了南纬60°以南南大洋最全面的地形测绘。最近,IBCSO项目组决定与日本基金会-GEBCO海底2030项目合作,以支持其在2030年之前绘制世界海洋地图的工作目标。第二个版本的IBCSO扩展到南纬50°,更详细地分析了许多海底地貌。

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(6)【划区管理】评估金枪鱼区域渔业管理组织在数据报告方面的进展

[Area Based Management] Assessing progress in data reporting by tuna Regional Fisheries Management Organizations

金枪鱼区域渔业管理组织(RFMOs)收集和分析的数据是支持区域生物多样性管理、可持续利用和保护的重要信息来源之一。鉴于未来极有可能针对国家管辖范围以外的区域(ABNJ)建立一项新的公海协定,研究人员对捕捞统计数据和种群进行评估。结果显示,大西洋和印度洋区域渔业管理组织的渔获物种报告比太平洋区域的详细。同时,现阶段这些组织在渔获丢弃方面的统计和报告还亟待完善。

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其他资料 Other resources

(1)消除政府对非法、无管制和未报告的捕捞活动的支持

Eliminating government support for illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing

报告/Report


(2)经合组织支持可持续海洋的工作

OECD work in support of a sustainable ocean

报告/Report


(3)国际海产品可持续发展基金会(ISSF):金枪鱼渔业全行业的透明问责

International Seafood Sustainability Foundation (ISSF): Transparent Accountability Across Tuna Fisheries

报告/Report


(4)有机水产养殖难以在欧洲得到重视

Organic aquaculture struggling to gain traction in Europe

报告/Report


(5)2022-2032年缅因州水产养殖路线图

Maine Aquaculture Roadmap 2022-2032

报告/Report


活动 Events

>>预告 Upcoming Events

(1)海洋行动的蓝色浪潮-2022年海洋重要事件指南

A Blue Wave of Ocean Action 2022 - GUIDE TO KEY OCEAN EVENTS

详情/Detail


(2)2022.6.30 课程 蓝色新政: 为什么我们需要新的海洋政治

2022.6.30 Lecture A blue new deal: Why we need a new politics for the ocean

详情/Detail


(3)2022.7.7 网络研讨会 将气候变化整合到海洋保护区(MPA)管理计划

2022.7.7 Webinar Integrating Climate Change into Marine Protected Area (MPA) Management Plans

详情/Detail


(4)2022.6.30-7.19 网络研讨会 NOAA的公平和环境战略草案——公众评论

2022.6.30-7.19 Webinar NOAA Fisheries' Draft Equity and Environmental Strategy--Public Comment

详情/Detail


>>回顾 Recordings

(1)2022.6.1 网络研讨会 了解中国渔业对气候变化的社会生态脆弱性的研究

2022.6.1 Webinar Research to Understand Socio-ecological Vulnerability of Chinas Fisheries to Climate Change

详情/Detail


(2)2022.6.8 网络研讨会 21世纪的海洋保护区:蓝色转折点

2022.6.8 Webinar Marine Protected Areas in the 21st Century: a turquoise tipping point

详情/Detail


>>说明 Disclaimer

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题图:MC12 Closing Ceremony, 17 June 2022 | WTO/Jay Louvion