Issue 51 | Blue Pulse: Marine Conservation Bulletin

日期:

China vigorously promotes high-quality development of marine ecology; Bolton Food Group calls for the conservation of tuna stocks should shift the past reactive mentality to a proactive way of thinking as a method for improving the stability and sustainability of the tuna industry.

导语 Introduction

关键点

金枪鱼捕捞管理应该与时俱进,从被动地做出反应,到主动可预测地,并通过推进捕捞策略来提高管理工作。欧洲金枪鱼行业最大的利益相关方之一——博尔顿食品集团,正在呼吁此项革新,以便在复杂的供应链中求得可预测性,以提高金枪鱼行业的稳定性和可持续性。不仅如此,渔业管理法规面对气候变化的滞后性,也在影响着鱼群与渔业。鉴于水温上升和鱼群波动带来的影响,以往被动的、缓慢的决策过程,需要重大的转型改革。

Highlight

Tuna fishing management should develop with the times, from reacting passively to being proactive and predictable, and improve management by advancing harvest strategy One of Europe’s biggest stakeholders Bolton Food Group is calling for more pre-agreed, science-based decisions and automatic mechanisms to manage tuna stocks in order to establish greater stability and predictability in the complicated supply chain, and also achieve a sustainable fishery. Additionally, the climate is changing much faster than fishing regulation is evolving, which influences the species and fishery. According to the impact of water temperature rise and fish stock fluctuation, the passive and slow dicision-making process before should be overthrown.


时讯 News

金枪鱼在阳光下 | iStock 制

(1)农业农村部、财政部发布渔业发展补助资金项目实施方案,资金主要用于支持建设国家级海洋牧场、建设国家级沿海渔港经济区、建设远洋渔业基地、提升现代渔业装备设备和渔业基础公共设施、推进渔业绿色循环发展、加强渔业资源调查养护和国际履约能力提升等方面工作。

The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs and the Ministry of Finance of China released the Implementation Plan of Fisheries Development Subsidy Project, the funds are mainly used to support the construction of national marine ranches, national coastal fishing port economic zone, distant water fishing bases; upgrade modern fisheries equipment and infrastructure facilities, promote the green and circular development of fisheries, strengthen fisheries resources survey and conservation, strengthen the enhancement of international compliance capacity and other aspects of work.

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(2)山东威海荣成市东楮岛村的100亩连片海草,投保了全国首单海洋碳汇指数险。这意味着因特定海洋环境变化造成的碳汇减弱,将由保险公司负责赔偿。该险种能够有效化解海草床灾害风险,解决灾后海草床碳汇资源救助、灾后重建和养殖维护资金短缺问题。这对扩大海洋资源利用、推动绿色金融创新具有开拓性意义,有助于推动山东省海洋生态高质量发展。

A 6.67 hectares of continuous seagrass in Dongchudao Village, Rongcheng City, Weihai, Shandong Province, was insured with the first marine carbon sink index insurance in the country. This means that the insurance company will be responsible for compensating for the weakened carbon sink caused by specific marine environmental changes. This insurance can effectively address the risks of disasters, and provide funding for relief, post-disaster reconstruction, and maintenance. This is of pioneering significance to expand the use of marine resources and promote green financial innovation.

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(3)随着大量关于海洋保护的纪录片和政府报告的问世,公众开始逐渐意识到海洋保护的迫切性和重要性,大公司和资金也开始认可在这一领域的投资。Pontos Aqua的创始人、蓝色海洋基金会和Vedra合伙人一起成立了Ocean 14,目的是刺激蓝色经济的发展,激发数以亿计的资金投入到这一领域。他们希望能够实现海洋资源的健康的可持续发展,海产品行业的数字化进程。

With the advent of high-quality documentaries and government reports on marine conservation, the public is becoming aware of the urgency and importance of marine conservation, and large companies and funds are beginning to recognize investments in this area. The founders of Pontos Aqua, the Blue Ocean Foundation, and Vedra Partners have joined together to create Ocean 14 with the goal of stimulating the development of a blue economy and inspiring hundreds of millions of capital into this sector. Their vision is to be able to achieve healthy and sustainable development of seafood and the digitalization of the seafood industry.

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(4)水产养殖管理委员会(ASC)发布了两项虾类标准的更新,目的是扩大其计划的覆盖范围。ASC的虾类标准是为了确保负责任的养殖,减少虾类养殖产业对环境和社会的影响。本次修订版的虾类标准对循环水养殖系统养殖场提出了新的要求,同时增加了四个新的淡水物种属。至此,全球99%的养殖虾都在ASC虾类标准的范围内。

The Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC) has released two updates to its shrimp standard with the goal of expanding the coverage of its program. ASC's shrimp standard is designed to ensure responsible farming and reduce the environmental and social impacts of the shrimp farming industry. The revised version of the shrimp standard introduces new requirements for recirculating water aquaculture system farms. In the meantime, four new genera of freshwater species were added to the standard. Thus, 99% of the world's farmed shrimp are covered by the ASC shrimp standard.

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观点 Perspectives

图为福建的一处养殖基地。目前,中国大部分的海水养殖都集中在这样的海湾区域。| Zimu Liu, Alamy

(1)Chris Chase: 新西兰渔业公司Sealord提议将新西兰89%的海底山划为保护区,这意味着要将新西兰142个海底山中的127个都囊括进保护区的范畴。Sealord的首席执行官在新闻发布会中声称,保护海洋环境的同时,也可以保障就业、出口、食物供应的发展,公司的提案可以极大程度上保证食品安全、并促进了渔业的可持续发展。

New Zealand fishing company proposes that 89% of seamounts in New Zealand should be covered by conservation zones, which means that 127 of the country's 142 seamounts would be placed into a conversation envelope. In a press release, Sealord's CEO claimed that protecting the marine environment can go hand in hand with preserving jobs, exports and food supplies, and that the company's proposal would go a long way toward ensuring food safety and sustainable development of the fishing industry.

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(2)Shem Oirere: TMT 最新报告显示,为了逃避监管,挂用非洲国家船旗从事非法捕捞的渔船数量持续增加。报告认为,悬挂国旗的渔船必须受到非洲大陆政府的有力的监督和控制。同时,没能遵守法规的渔船应该被取消船旗,让人们不敢铤而走险。只有世界各地的专家和政府组织齐心协力,才能在全球范围内减少非法、未报告、和无管制(IUU)的捕鱼活动。

Shem Oirere: The latest report shows that the number of fishing vessels exploiting African flags to engage in illegal fishing in order to avoid surveillance continues keeps increasing. Flagged fishing vessels must be subject to strong oversight and control by Afircan continent's governments. At the same time, fishing vessels that fail to comply with regulations should be de-flagged to deter people from taking the risk. A concerted effort by experts and government organizations is needed to reduce IUU fishing globally.

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(3)韩擎:为了养活2050年全球近百亿人口,水产养殖将在未来粮食安全中扮演重要角色。2018年,全球水产养殖鱼类提供了全球超过一半的食用鱼类需求,而中国的水产养殖量更是占到全球的60%以上,这对保障食物安全、减少贫困有重大的意义。但目前,不管是淡水还是海水养殖均面临资源环境限制的巨大挑战,亟需更多技术创新和政策支持。

Han Qing: In order to provide a global population of nearly 10 billion with enough food in 2050, aquaculture will be playing an important role in food security in the future. In 2018, global aquaculture fish provided more than half of the world's edible fish demand, and China accounted for more than 60% of global aquaculture, which is of great significance to ensure food security and reduce poverty. However, both freshwater and marine aquaculture are currently facing huge challenges in terms of resource and environmental constraints, and more technological innovation and policy support are urgently needed.

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(4)Jason Holland:欧洲金枪鱼行业最大的利益相关方之一——博尔顿食品集团,正在呼吁建立更多预先商定的、基于科学的决定和自主的机制来管理金枪鱼种群,以便在复杂的供应链中求得可预测性。目前,缺乏管理金枪鱼捕捞和渔民的规则正在影响金枪鱼行业的稳定性,同时,这也会阻碍渔业的可持续发展。

Jason Holland: Bolton Food Group, one of the largest stakeholders in the European tuna industry, is calling for more pre-agreed, science-based decisions and autonomous mechanisms to manage tuna stocks in order to acquire predictability in a complex supply chain. Currently, the lack of rules governing tuna fishing and tuna fishers is affecting the stability of the tuna industry. At the same time, it can hinder the sustainable development of the fishery.

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解读 Interpretations

一只帽带企鹅在阿德里岛的岸上蹒跚而行 | Philippe Cousteau

(1)NOAA Fisheries: 可持续渔业,可持续海鲜

NOAA Fisheries: Sustainable Fisheries, Sustainable Seafood

管理海洋自然资源是美国海洋和大气管理局(NOAA)的核心任务,经过几十年的努力和投资,受到NOAA监测的80%的种群处于健康状态,92%没有被过度捕捞。取得这样斐然的成果既不容易,而且也不是永久的:这些年来,有不少重建的种群又下降到需要重建计划的程度。对NOAA来说,为了实现资源可持续利用,必须得充分考虑不确定性,调整管理策略,适应环境变化。

Management of marine natural resources is the core mission of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). After decades of effort and investment, 80% of the stocks monitored by NOAA are in healthy condition and 92% are not overfished. Achieving such remarkable results has been neither easy nor permanent. Over the years, the number of rebuilt stocks have declined again to the point where rebuilding plans are needed. For NOAA, in order to achieve sustainable resource use, it is necessary to take full account of uncertainty, adjust management strategies, and adapt to environmental change.

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(2)中外对话:中国尝试改变补贴方式以保护海洋渔业资源

China Dialogue: China tries to change ways of subsidies to protect marine fishery resources

山东省、福建省分别宣布将于今年开始发放“海洋渔业资源养护补贴”,以此引导渔民遵守资源养护措施,并终止发放了持续15年的燃油补贴。新补贴包括“海洋伏季休渔补贴”和“负责任捕捞补贴”两部分,这有助于缓解渔民因作业时间减少导致的收入下降,同时呼应了十四五规划中提出的提升渔业治理水平、优化调整近海捕捞业等内容。

Shandong Province and Fujian Province have announced that this year, they will start issuing "Subsidies of Marine Fishery Resources Conservation" to guide fishermen to comply with resource conservation measures, and will terminate the fuel subsidies that have lasted for 15 years. The new subsidies include two parts: the "Marine Seasonal Fishing Moratorium Subsidy" and the "Responsible Fishing Subsidy", which help alleviate the decline in fishermen's income due to reduced operating hours, and they echo the 14th Five Year Plan's proposals to improve fisheries governance and optimize and adjust the offshore fisheries.

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(3)Bangor Daily News:  气候变化比渔业法规的发展快得多

Bangor Daily News: The climate is changing much faster than fishing regulations are evolving

负责监督缅因湾和整个东海岸渔业的官员正在认真研究渔业法规将需要如何演变,以跟上气候变化带来的加速和不可预测的变化。渔业专家认为,鉴于水温上升和鱼群波动带来的影响,过去的管理方式可能不得不被推翻重建。渔业管理向来是复杂和繁琐的,但随着变化的步伐加快,随着现行管理制度面临的风险愈发变大,必须得摈弃以往被动的、缓慢的决策过程。

Officials overseeing fisheries in the Gulf of Maine and along the entire East Coast are taking a hard look at how fisheries regulations will need to evolve to keep up with the accelerated and unpredictable changes brought on by climate change. Fisheries experts believe that management measures that are built in the past may have to be reversed and rebuilt given the effects of rising water temperatures and fluctuating fish stocks. Fisheries management has always been complex and cumbersome, but as the pace of change accelerates and the risks to the current management system become greater, the reactive, slow decision-making process of the past will have to be abandoned.

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(4)Pew: 延续Cousteau的遗产的南大洋倡议

Pew: Cousteau Legacy Continues With Southern Ocean Advocacy

环保倡导者兼电影制片人Ashlan Cousteau和Philippe Cousteau Jr. 在2月份访问了南极和智利,拍摄了许多关于南大洋的影像、图片资料,并对当地的动植物种群进行了调查。Cousteau的祖父和父亲是科学家与发明家,他继承了父辈的衣钵,以南极保护乃至海洋环境保护为己任。没有地区可以免受气候变化的影响,Cousteau认为,南大洋驱动着全球的洋流,是全球气候的调节器,因此保护南大洋则是防止气候恶化的重中之重。

Environmental advocates and filmmakers Ashlan Cousteau and Philippe Cousteau Jr. visited Antarctica and Chile in February to shoot images and pictures, and measures the local flora and fauna of the Southern Ocean. Cousteau's grandfather and father were also great scientists and inventors, and he has followed in their footsteps, making Antarctic conservation and even marine environmental protection his mission. No region is immune to the effects of climate change. And Cousteau believes that the Southern Ocean drives global currents and is a regulator of global climate, so protecting it is a top priority to prevent climate deterioration.

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(5)中外对话:蓝碳抵消项目落地生根

China Dialogue: Blue Carbon Offset Project Takes Root

蓝碳项目是近期融资领域的新兴产物,各国和企业不仅投资了蓝碳项目,与此同时,他们还计划将海岸带和海洋生态系统修复过程中所固存的碳整合进入他们的应对气候变化方案当中。保护和修复蓝碳生态系统的项目是当下最热门的碳抵消项目之一,蓝碳减排量的销售可以向世界各地的海岸带生态系统的修复项目输送资金,避免碳被排放到大气中的同时吸收更多的碳。

Blue carbon projects are the latest addition to climate finance, with countries and companies not only investing in blue carbon projects but also planning to integrate the carbon sequestered in the coastal zone and marine ecosystem restoration into their climate change programs. Projects to protect and restore blue carbon ecosystems are among the hottest carbon offsets available today. Selling blue carbon offset credits can channel funds to restoration projects in coastal zone ecosystems around the world, preventing carbon from being released into the atmosphere while absorbing more carbon.

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学术 Academics

(1)【划区管理】为保护公海的生物多样性而建立的气候变化适应型的三维保护区

 [Area-based Management] Towards climate-smart, three-dimensional protected areas for biodiversity conservation in the high seas

为了保护生物多样性,研究人员提出了一个公海的规划方案。科学们利用来自四个领域的数据,考虑了12,932种脊椎动物、无脊椎动物和藻类物种,再加上三种气候情景,最终制定出了这一方案。由此产生的方案是一个低风险的选择,其仅覆盖了6%的公海,这为开发一个完整的公海海洋保护区网络提供了一个核心。方案可以最大程度地保护生物多样性,最大限度地减少气候变化的影响,将物种留在保护区的范围内,并减少与渔业的冲突。

In order to protect biodiversity, the researchers proposed a planning approach for the high seas. Using in-depth data from four areas, the scientists considered 12,932 vertebrates, invertebrates, and algal species, plus three climate scenarios, to develop this scenario. A resulting scenario is a low-risk option that covers only 6% of the high seas, which provides a nucleus for developing a complete network of high seas marine protected areas. The scenario maximizes biodiversity conservation, minimizes exposure of climate change, retains species within boundaries of protected areas, and reduces conflicts with fishing.

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(2)【气候与海洋】避免气候变暖导致的海洋大灭绝

[Climate & Ocean] Avoiding ocean mass extinction from climate warming

根据生态生理极限的观点,随着海洋温度升高和氧气量的减少,海洋系统可能会经历与过去相同的灾难性的大规模海洋灭绝。研究人员通过化石记录进行校准,量化了不同气候情景下全球和局部海洋的灭绝风险。根据科学家的测算,如果气候状况继续恶化,接下来的一个世纪内的物种损失就会和人类过去几千年造成的物种损失相当。而如果人类能够有效地控制温室气体排放,那么物种大灭绝的风险将减少70%以上。

According to the ecophysiological limits, as ocean temperatures increase and oxygen levels decrease, marine systems could experience the same catastrophic mass extinctions as in the past. Calibrated by the fossil record, the researchers quantified the risk of global and local ocean extinctions under different climate scenarios. According to the scientists' calculations, if climate conditions continue to deteriorate, species losses over the next century could be comparable to those caused by humans over the past several thousand years. If we were able to effectively control greenhouse gas emissions, the risk of species mass extinction would be reduced by more than 70%.

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(3)【蓝色经济】在气候变化中扩大海洋食品生产

[Blue Economy] Expanding ocean food production under climate change

为了应对人类社会愈发增长的食物需求,渔业改革和近海水产养殖势在必行。本篇研究中,研究人员阐明了渔业改革、持续进步的饲料技术和有效的海水养殖管理对维持人均海产品量有着极大的促进作用。但科学家经过调查后发现,即使是适应气候的渔业改革也不足以维持全球海产品的人均产量。因此,除了渔业和近海水产养殖协调改革之外,还需要大幅度遏制温室气体的排放。如果能同时做到这些,海产养殖具有难以估量的潜力。

Fisheries reform and offshore aquaculture are imperative to respond to the growing food needs of human society. In this study, researchers show that fisheries reform, continued advances in feed technology, and effective mariculture management have enormous benefits for maintaining per capita seafood. However, scientists have investigated and found that even climate-adapted fisheries reforms are not sufficient to maintain global per capita seafood production. Therefore, in addition to coordinated reforms in fisheries and offshore aquaculture, significant curbs on greenhouse gas emissions are needed. If these can be achieved simultaneously, mariculture has an incalculable potential.

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(4)【技术与工具】餐厅供应的海鲜品种受气候影响而发生变化的特征

[Techs & Tools ] Signature of climate-induced changes in seafood species served in restaurants

随着海洋温度的升高,海洋生物的栖息地也在不断的变化。科学家们过去推测,气候引起的海产品供应变化将影响整个海产品供应链,但是这种推测在过去很少被证明。在这篇文章中,研究人员通过调查一种非常规信息源-餐厅菜单,来研究渔获量的变化对他们提供的食物的影响。研究结果显示,菜单中海鲜物种的平均偏好温度与观察到的平均海面温度和渔获物平均温度的模式息息相关。这表明,餐厅的菜单可以作为研究海洋生态系统和渔业的重要的补充信息来源。

As ocean temperatures rise, the habitats of marine species also change accordingly. In the past, scientists have speculated that climate-induced changes in seafood availability would affect the entire seafood supply chain, but this speculation has rarely been proven. In this article, researchers investigate the impact of changing catches on the food they serve by studying an unconventional source of information - restaurant menus. The findings show that the average preferred temperature of seafood species on the menu is closely related to the observed pattern of average sea surface temperature and average temperature of the catch. This suggests that restaurant menus can be an important additional information for studying marine ecosystems and fisheries.

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(5)【蓝色经济】气候变化对越南捕鱼业造成影响并波及物价与收入

[Blue Economy] Welfare impact of climate change on capture fisheries in Vietnam

越南沿海地区拥有充足的渔业资源,渔业在越南农产品和GDP中占比重大,该产业为300万劳动力提供工作,同时为确保国家粮食安全和营养需求做出重大贡献。但由于气候变化,越南的渔获量可能会在未来的几十年里巨幅萎缩。研究人员指出,过往的许多研究都集中在鱼类种群、产量和收入的增加或减损上,而没有理解渔业生产者减产涨价和消费者因物价上涨而产生变化。而本篇研究旨在通过均衡分析和支持性方法确定产业变化。

Vietnam's coastal areas are endowed with ample fishery resources, and fisheries account for a significant part of the country's agricultural products and GDP. Fisheries industry provide work for 3 million laborers in Vietnan. In the meanwhile, it also makes a significant contribution to ensuring the country's food security and nutritional needs. However, due to climate change, Vietnam's fish catches may shrink dramatically in the coming decades. The researchers note that many past studies have focused on increases or decreases in fish stocks, production and income, without understanding changes in the welfare of fishery producers and consumers. Instead, this study aims to identify welfare changes through a balanced analysis and a supportive approach.

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(6)【海洋生态】恢复湿地生物地貌反馈以恢复世界生物碳热点地区

[Ocean Ecosystem] Recovering wetland biogeomorphic feedbacks to restore the world's biotic carbon hotspots

生物地貌湿地(泥炭地、红树林、盐沼地和海草草甸)只占地球表面的1%,但其单位面积的高碳固存率和有效储存能力使其储存了全球有机生态系统碳的20%。研究人员解释道,湿地通过“生物地貌反馈”产生的自我促进的反馈作用塑造了景观并放大了碳储存量。然而,全世界的生物地貌湿地正在以年平均损失率1%的速度减少,其导致的碳排放和碳损失都是十分巨大的。研究结果强调,迫切需要通过保护来阻止正在发生的损失,并通过恢复生物地貌湿地作为世界生物碳热点来重建景观形成的反馈。

Biogeomorphic wetlands (peatlands, mangroves, salt marshes, and seagrass meadows) cover only 1% of Earth's surface, but their high carbon sequestration rates and effective storage capacity per unit area allow them to store 20% of the global organic ecosystem carbon. The researchers explain that wetlands shape the landscape and amplify carbon storage through self-fostering feedback from "biogeomorphic feedback". However, biogeomorphic wetlands around the world are declining at an average annual loss rate of around 1%, and the resulting carbon emissions and losses are enormous. The findings underscore the urgency to stop conservation ongoing losses through conservation ongoing losses and to reestablish landscape-forming feedback by restoring biogeomorphic wetlands as the world's biological carbon hotspots.

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题图:一只鲸鱼在南极半岛附近的南大洋上浮出水面呼吸空气 | Philippe Cousteau