The climate-oceans nexus is back on the Blue Pulse's radar. This issue's Perspectives and Interpretations section discuss the impact of climate change on marine life and the key role of ocean-based actions in combating climate change. Some of these topics are a continuation of discussions from the Glasgow Climate Conference. At the same time, the impact of climate action on the ocean is also receiving attention. Offshore renewable energies, as an important means of mitigating climate change and the energy transition, has implications for both marine ecology and deep-sea mining. Discussions of this issue can also be found in this issue. Also included among the other Resources is a report that is a summary of several months of discussion on the principles for large-scale carbon removal activities in the oceans and is worthy of attention by readers concerned about climate change mitigation.
The New England Fishery Management Council calls for the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management to establish “a compensatory mitigation fund for damages that occur to the marine environment and fish habitat” and losses to fishing vessels as turbine arrays are built.
Business backlash against deep-sea mining grows, Volkswagen Group, Triodos Bank, Scania, and Patagonia today joined growing calls for a moratorium on the emerging deep-sea mining industry.
3) 太平洋岛国斐济与怀特研究所合作，启动 "蓝色繁荣 "计划，在2030年前对其100%的海洋进行可持续管理，并对其30%的海洋实施保护措施。
The Pacific Island nation of Fiji has partnered with the Waitt Institute to launch the “Blue Prosperity” program and sustainably manage 100 percent of its ocean and implement protections on 30 percent of its ocean by 2030.
On November 27, the foundation stone laying ceremony of Zhuhai Donggangxing Offshore Fishery Base was held near Hongwan Central Fishing Port. The project plans to invest 400 million CNY for building a full industrial chain fishery base that integrates offshore fishing and shipping, seafood processing, frozen storage, and cold chain delivery services.
The first China-Pacific Island Countries Forum on fisheries cooperation and development was held in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province on December 8. Ma Youxiang, Vice Minister of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China attended and delivered a speech.
1) Jenni Grossmann: 英国自脱欧以来，捕捞许可的冲突甚嚣尘上。在欧洲，几乎所有的鳕鱼种群都面临风险。自1970年以来，北海的鳕鱼数量已经下降了80%，其数量令人震惊。在此期间，每一年都在过度捕捞，这已造成了巨大损失。欧盟、英国和挪威现在正在进行谈判，以决定明年在东北大西洋的捕捞量--如果在这些中忽视鱼群所面临的严峻现实，这些决定可能会把脆弱的物种推向边缘。
Jenni Grossmann: Post-Brexit conflict over permission to fish has dominated the headlines lately. In Europe, almost all cod stocks are particularly vulnerable. The North Sea cod population has dropped by an alarming 80% since 1970. There is not a single year during that period in which it has been fished sustainably – and this has taken its toll. Negotiations are underway right now between the EU, the UK and Norway to decide how much fish can be caught next year in the North-East Atlantic – ignoring the stark reality of suffering stocks in those decisions could push vulnerable species over the edge.
2) Andrea Kavanagh：作为开创先河的政府间生态保护机构，南极海洋生物资源养护委员会（CCAMLR）可以也必须做出更多，否则它将会给全球环境危机的应对”拖后腿“。
Andrea Kavanagh： As a pioneering intragovernmental conservation body, CCAMLR can and must do more, or risk being left behind in responding to the global environmental crisis.
Sandor Mulsow: The International Seabed Authority is the one that should. However, in practice it does not do so. There are other interests behind it. At the moment, the ISA has two mandates that are counterproductive. One, which is in articles 136 to 145 [of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea], has to do with the common heritage of mankind, with the search for equality of all countries, the promotion of research, and very positive things. But, on the other hand, it has articles 150, 151 and 152 that focus on production, exploitation and profits.
4)Emma Cavan, Erica M. Ferrer and U. Rashid Sumaila: 我们希望世界知道，保护鱼类、渔业、海洋生态系统以及它们提供的碳服务，将帮助我们确保我们需要的环境未来。海洋问题，包括但不限于捕鱼，应该在起草气候政策时占据更多的前台和中心位置。
Emma Cavan, Erica M. Ferrer and U. Rashid Sumaila: We want the world to know that conserving fish, fisheries, marine ecosystems, and the carbon services they provide, will help us secure the environmental future we need. Ocean issues, including but not limited to fishing, should hold a greater place front-and-center when it comes to drafting climate policies.
5) Michelle Grady: 澳大利亚的北领地拥有世界上最后一些完整的热带海岸和海洋栖息地，其中许多都具有国家和国际意义。海底采矿禁令是一个值得欢迎的消息，但这些环境仍然面临着来自气候变化、沿海开发、农业径流、水坝和河流中的水提取、过度捕捞和污染等日益严重的威胁。这些多重压力以复杂的方式相互作用，产生的影响比单个影响的简单相加还要大，而且更难预测。
Michelle Grady: The Northern Territory hosts some of the last intact tropical coastal and marine habitats in the world, many of which are of national and international significance. The seabed mining ban is welcome news, but these environments still face growing threats from climate change, coastal development, agricultural runoff, dams and water extraction in rivers, overfishing and pollution. These multiple pressures interact in complex ways, generating effects that are greater, and much more difficult to predict, than a simple summation of individual impacts.
Mongabay：The season for cold stunned sea turtles and their rescue on cape cod
As cold weather sets in across New England each year, juvenile sea turtles, drawn to the globally warmed summer waters off Cape Cod, Massachusetts, are cold-stunned. If not rescued they die.Trained volunteers have already brought more than 100 turtles to the New England Aquarium Sea Turtle Rescue Center this autumn. The number of cold-stunned turtles at Cape Cod has been rising during the last decade, with some seasons logging more than 1,000 stranded turtles — many of them critically endangered Kemp’s ridleys.
2）The Narwhal: 我们需要帮助：海洋造林如何帮助对抗气候变化。
The Narwhal: We need kelp: how seaforestation can combat climate change
In reality, the world is on track for disastrous heating of more than 2.4 C and there is sadly a long history of missed climate targets and ambitions. So, while we hope it will be different this time, there is an urgent need to take practical actions that will reduce emissions. It’s hard to ignore that most climate actions — including at COP26 — are missing over 70 percent of our planet: the oceans. A lot is being made of “nature-based solutions” like tree planting (e.g. Trillion Tree Campaign), but it’s time we embrace ocean-based solutions.
SciTechDaily: New technology shows climate change is making one of the worlds strongest currents flow faster
The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), the only ocean current that circumnavigates the planet, is speeding up. For the first time, scientists are able to tell that this is happening by taking advantage of a decades-long set of observational records. Long-term data capturing changes in the Southern Ocean were hard to come by before the availability of satellite-mounted instruments and the Argo network. That network of autonomous floats, which measure ocean conditions such as temperature and salinity, began in 1999 and reached full capacity in 2007. A full complement of 4,000 floats across the world’s oceans continues to collect data to this day. The researchers were thus able to use more than a decade’s worth of comprehensive Argo data to distinguish the trend of the accelerating current from natural variability.
Pew Charitable Trust：Stakeholdes in global fishing industry call for acceleration of harvest strategies
Effective long-term management of the world’s fish stocks requires science, stakeholder engagement, and advanced planning. An innovative approach known as harvest strategies combines those elements, providing fisheries managers a science-based framework for determining precautionary measures for fish stocks. Also known as management procedures, harvest strategies move managers away from yearly, sometimes contentious quota negotiations to a set of pre-agreed rules that aim to foster long-term sustainability and profitability of fisheries. They allow managers and stakeholders to balance trade-offs among management objectives for both the species and socioeconomic dimensions of the fishery. And, the methodology also allows scientists to better account for the variable and uncertain environments in which fisheries operate.
5）Hakai magazine: 在大西洋的中心有一个一直被忽视的海鸟聚集区
Hakai magazine: In the middle of the atlantic an overlooked seabird hotspot
Seabirds comprise one of the most threatened groups of vertebrates. Almost half of all seabirds are in decline. Until recently, scientists knew relatively little about the lives of the birds that dwell on the open North Atlantic. These species spend most of their existence beyond the continental shelves, where life is diffuse and at-sea surveys are costly and dangerous. Not knowing where they live or feed has made protecting the birds nearly impossible. But a group of about 80 scientists, including Wakefield, a biologist at the University of Glasgow in Scotland, has been scouring the North Atlantic to find out more. In the process, they’ve identified an ocean habitat teeming with birds.
ScienceDaily: Powerful new tool makes coral reef monitoring faster, easier, cheaper
来自冲绳科学技术大学研究生院（OIST）、东京大学和冲绳县环境科学中心的研究人员开发了一种工具，可以通过分析海水样本中的DNA来确定一个珊瑚礁上的硬珊瑚的多样性。这一强大的新工具在《海洋科学前沿》（Frontiers in Marine Science）上报道，它为更准确和更容易的珊瑚礁监测铺平了道路--这是全世界的珊瑚礁保护和恢复向前迈出的重要一步。
Researchers from the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST), the University of Tokyo, and the Okinawa Prefecture Environment Science Center have developed a tool that can determine the diversity of hard corals on a reef by analyzing the DNA in a sample of seawater. As reported in Frontiers in Marine Science, this powerful new tool paves the way for more accurate and accessible coral reef monitoring -- a step forward for coral reef conservation and restoration throughout the world.
[Blue Economy] Strengthening European Union fisheries by removing harmful subsidies
[Blue Economy] Full spectrum sustainability and a theory of access: Integrating social benefits into fisheries governance
The United Nations has identified access to and benefits from fisheries resources as key sustainable development challenges. The business-as-usual management approach focusing on a limited set of biological and economic considerations has not adequately addressed widespread global calls for governing the distribution of access and benefits effectively and equitably. Our paper develops a novel approach for incorporating social science analysis of the generation, distribution and maintenance of benefits into integrated full spectrum sustainability frameworks. To do so, our paper puts a full spectrum sustainability framework into conversation with Ribot and Peluso's influential Theory of Access framework, a political ecology framework which allows for a comprehensive understanding of who benefits from resources, and through what processes they are able to do so. Our paper proposes five immediate uses of these combined frameworks: (i) to facilitate the development of indicators around access and benefits; (ii) to help identify, organize and analyze social benefit data; (iii) to guide the development of cross-disciplinary representations of a system; (iv) to lay out potential trade-offs, cumulative impacts and changes to oceans governance; (v) and to help users respond to national and international objectives around the generation and distribution of benefits. In proposing novel ways of analyzing sustainable resource use in fisheries, our paper thus responds to management challenges associated with an expanding agenda and set of priorities, and growing policy interest in governance and management of the ocean for the benefit of coastal peoples and their communities.
[Marine Ecosystem] Revealing the full biosphere structure and versatile metabolic functions in the deepest ocean sediment of the Challenger Deep
We adopt a deep metagenomics approach to investigate the microbiome in the sediment of Challenger Deep, Mariana Trench. We construct 178 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) representing 26 phyla, 16 of which are reported from hadal sediment for the first time. Based on the MAGs, we find the microbial community functions are marked by enrichment and prevalence of mixotrophy and facultative anaerobic metabolism. The microeukaryotic community is found to be dominated by six fungal groups that are characterized for the first time in hadal sediment to possess the assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate/sulfate reduction, and hydrogen sulfide oxidation pathways. By metaviromic analysis, we reveal novel hadal Caudovirales clades, distinctive virus-host interactions, and specialized auxiliary metabolic genes for modulating hosts’ nitrogen/sulfur metabolism. The hadal microbiome is further investigated by large-scale cultivation that cataloged 1070 bacterial and 19 fungal isolates from the Challenger Deep sediment, many of which are found to be new species specialized in the hadal habitat.
[Techs & Tools] Ocean wave observation utilizing motion records of seabirds
Various environmental oceanic factors, such as ocean waves, affect seabird ecology; ocean waves are important, as most flying seabirds must land on ocean surfaces for foraging. However, the global ocean wave observation network is spatiotemporally poor compared to other parameters; fine-scale information on wave conditions is limited, and the influence of wave conditions on seabirds has not been quantitatively studied. In this study, a method was developed to estimate ocean waves from the fine-scale motions of seabirds floating on the sea surface, as recorded by a global positioning system (single-point positioning). Ocean wave parameters, estimated from streaked shearwater around the eastern ocean of Japan, strongly corresponded with the observation results of a buoy, with an accuracy of <0.3 m for wave heights of 1.0–2.5 m. Furthermore, wave height estimated from streaked shearwaters and wandering albatrosses around the southern Indian Ocean significantly correlated with hindcast-model values. Bird-based wave observation methods are valuable not only in seabird ecology but also in oceanography as an in-situ observation system. Based on the results of bird-based wave observations, the preferences of wandering albatrosses under various wave conditions were further examined. Anecdotal studies suggest that seabirds prefer low-wave conditions to forage in because of prey visibility; however, wandering albatrosses landed on the sea surface randomly, even on very high waves (5–6 m), revealing their tolerance to ocean surface conditions. Considering the effect of environmental factors on marine animals, increased inclusion of previously ignored parameters in analysis, such as ocean waves, is essential.
[Marine Ecosystem] Feeding ecology has shaped the evolution of modern sharks
Sharks are iconic predators in today's oceans, yet their modern diversity has ancient origins. In particular, present hypotheses suggest that a combination of mass extinction, global climate change, and competition has regulated the community structure of dominant mackerel (Lamniformes) and ground (Carcharhiniformes) sharks over the last 66 million years. However, while these scenarios advocate an interplay of major abiotic and biotic events, the precise drivers remain obscure. Here, we focus on the role of feeding ecology using a geometric morphometric analysis of 3,837 fossil and extant shark teeth. Our results reveal that morphological segregation rather than competition has characterized lamniform and carcharhiniform evolution. Moreover, although lamniforms suffered a long-term disparity decline potentially linked to dietary “specialization,” their recent disparity rivals that of “generalist” carcharhiniforms. We further confirm that low eustatic sea levels impacted lamniform disparity across the end-Cretaceous mass extinction. Adaptations to changing prey availability and the proliferation of coral reef habitats during the Paleogene also likely facilitated carcharhiniform dispersals and cladogenesis, underpinning their current taxonomic dominance. Ultimately, we posit that trophic partitioning and resource utilization shaped past shark ecology and represent critical determinants for their future species survivorship.
其他资料 Other resources
National Marine Science Committee: The National Marine Plan: 2020 The mid-way point
WWF: Global Principles of Restorative Aquaculture
Guidance for Ocean-Based Carbon Dioxide Removal Projects Report
THE FISHERMAN THAT WROTE THE INSPECTION GUIDES
Planet Tracker report: Do You IUU?
The Science and Spirit of Seaweed: Discovering Food, Medicine, and Purpose in the Kelp Forests of the Pacific Northwest
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2021.12.06 Seafood2030: How technology, government efforts, and market action are aligning to address IUU fishing
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题图：深海中的章鱼 | NOAA海洋探索与研究办公室 摄