Issue 29 | Blue Pulse: Marine Conservation Bulletin

日期:

This issue includes the news of G7 ministerial declaration of ocean protection and several research papers on Antarctica’s ecosystems.

导语 Introduction

关键点一

5月22日是国际生物多样性日,今年的主题是“呵护自然人人有责”(We are part of the solution #forNature)。就在生物多样日的前一天,G7的环境部长会议发布联合宣言,提到了气候和生物多样性相关的议题,其中一节专门提及海洋领域,甚至特意提到了南极海洋保护区的设立。与此同时北欧国家的环境部长也发布了一个联合声明,尽管在篇幅上比G7的宣言要简短很多,内容上同样将气候和生物多样性联系起来,着重强调了海洋和保护区的重要角色。在海洋管理中跨越行业壁垒、综合考虑生物多样性和气候变化的因素,将是未来十年海洋保护的重要时代特色。

Highlight 1

This year's slogan for International Day for Biological Diversity is "We are part of the solution #forNature". On the day before Biodiversity Day, the G7 environment and climate Ministerial meeting issued a joint declaration on climate and biodiversity-related issues, with a special section on oceans, even mentioning the Antarctic marine protected areas(MPAs). On the same day, the Nordic environment ministers issued a joint declaration which, although much shorter in length than the G7 declaration, also linked climate and biodiversity, with the role of oceans and protected areas being highlighted. The integration of biodiversity and climate change considerations across sectoral barriers in ocean management could be an important feature of the times for marine conservation in the coming decade.

关键点二

让我们再次把目光投向南极。2021年的南极条约协商会议由法国主办,将在线上举行。本期学术板块中收录了两篇从宏观视角讨论南极生态系统的论文。在解读板块,有一篇关于南极海域冷藏船问题的文章。观点中也收录了质疑澳大利亚新的南极跑道的文章。就在您收到本期简报的晚上,还有一场马友友领衔的关于南大洋的线上音乐会!详见活动预告。

Highlight 2

Let's turn our attention once again to Antarctica. 2021's Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting, hosted by France, will be held online. This issue's academic section contains two papers on Antarctic ecosystems. In the Interpretation section, there is an article on problematic reefer vessels in Antarctic waters. An article questioning Australia's new Antarctic runway is included in the Perspectives section. On the very evening, you receive this newsletter, there will be a Yo-Yo Ma-led online concert about the Southern Ocean! See the Events section for details.


时讯 News

世界上唯一一艘捕鲸母船日新丸号 | Kyodo Senpaku Co 摄

(1) 七国集团(G7) 环境部长会议联合声明支持多个海洋保护目标。

G7 agrees to support multiple ocean conservation targets.

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(2)北欧多国环境部长联合发布关于生物多样性,海洋与气候变化宣言。

The Nordic Ministers of Environment and Climate take initiative for a ministerial declaration on biodiversity, oceans and climate.

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(3) 日本捕鲸公司,共同船舶,宣布建造一艘能在南极航行的捕鲸母船,以取代世界上唯一的一艘捕鲸母船日新丸号。

Whaling company, Kyodo Senpaku Co., said it plans to replace the world's only whaling mother ship, the Nisshin Maru, with a new whaling mother ship capable of sailing to the Antarctic Ocean.

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(4) 浙江省发布《自然保护地体系发展“十四五”规划》。《规划》提出,到2025年,落实自然保护地管理机构,基本建立制度体系;自然保护地陆域部分占陆域国土面积的9.8%以上,海域部分占管辖海域面积的9.0%以上。

Zhejiang Province released its 14th Five-Year Plan about the development of nature reserves system. It proposes that by year 2025, Zhejiang Province needs to establish nature reserves management institution, and to set up basic framework of the institutional management system. Additionally, the area of protected lands should account for more than 9.8% of the national territory, while 9.0% of the total national sea territory should be protected.

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(5) 一些中国企业在塞拉利昂参与的渔业开发项目受到当地环保组织批评。环保组织认为项目会伤害当地的环境,而当地的中国使馆坚称开发项目符合相关环境规范。

 Chinese involvement in Sierra Leone fishing development project criticized by environmental groups. They claim the potential harmful impacts on the local environment, while the local Chinese Embassy insists that the project meets relevant environmental regulations.

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观点 Perspectives

        濒临灭绝的西太平洋棱皮龟 | Mongaby 摄

(1) Marlowe Starling:“海洋生物学家警告:西太平洋棱皮龟濒临灭绝。研究显示,该亚群的数量以每年5.6%的速度下降,在28年间总体数量下降了80%。”

Marlowe Starling: "Marine biologists warn that time is running out to save the western Pacific leatherback sea turtles, as the subpopulation has decreased at a rate of 5.6% each year for an overall 80% decline over a 28-year period, according to a recent study."

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(2) Peter Thomson:“第26届联合国气候变化大会是推动气候资金朝向海洋的最好机会,海洋是减缓气候变化新路径。”

Peter Thomson: "COP26 is the best opportunity for the world to move climate finance decisively in the direction of strengthening the ocean's contribution to climate change mitigation."

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(3) Mongabay:“Mongabay绘制了智利沿海的特许三文鱼养殖区与该国海洋保护区的重叠情况,结果显示,这种重叠威胁到了巴塔哥尼亚独特的生态系统。”

Mongabay: " Mongabay has mapped out the salmon-farming concessions off Chile's coast and how they overlap with its patchwork of marine protected areas. This threatens the unique ecosystems of Patagonia."

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(4) Paul Govind & 刘能冶:”我们建议像南极戴维斯科考站跑道这样的重大项目立项前,澳大利亚政府应该提高其关于南极法律法规的标准,确保对南极独特的生态系统的环境评估更加细致准确。”

Paul Govind & Nengye Liu: "We suggest before carrying on a significant project such as the Davis aerodrome, the Australian government should improve its Antarctic-related legislation to ensure that environmental assessment is more sensitive to the unique Antarctic ecosystems."

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(5) Julie Brigham-Grette & Andrea Dutton: " 南极洲的冰盖融化在几十年后可能达到一个关键的转折点 …… 结果意味着我们必须要从现在开始节能减排。指望未来新的科学技术拯救我们大概率是行不通的。“

Professor Julie Brigham-Grette & Professor Andrea Dutton: "The Antarctica ice sheet could reach a critical tipping point in a few decades ... The results mean a common argument for not reducing greenhouse gas emissions now-that future technological advancement can save us later-is likely to fail."

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解读 Interpretations

中远集团是全球最大的海洋运输公司之一,在“海洋100强”中排名第23位
             Martin Witte / Alamy | 摄

(1) BalkanInsight: 麻烦多多的水域:状况不断的冷藏货船对于南极环境的威胁

希腊航运巨头Laskaridis兄弟在自己的祖国希腊素来以环保主义者的形象示人。但他们旗下的冷藏货船状况频发,对南极的海洋保护区构成威胁。

In their native Greece, the Laskaridis brothers have nurtured an image of environmentally-friendly philanthropists. But what about the threat posed to the protected waters of Antarctica by their refrigerated cargo ships?

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(2)联合国粮农组织: ”幽灵捕捞“是怎样摧毁我们的海洋环境

”幽灵捕捞“(指废弃或遗失的渔具)可能杀死鱼类和其他物种,改变海床和海洋环境,或者缠住船只的推进器。它也可能被作为垃圾冲上海滩,对海滩上的人和鸟类构成安全问题。

Ghost fishing kills fish and other species, altering the seabed and marine environments, or entangling ships' propellers. It can also be washuped up on the beach as litter, posing a safety concern for beach-goers and birds.

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(3)中外对话:“海洋100强”:少数大型企业如何主导海洋经济

60%全球海洋经济由100家企业所掌控。它们是否会与决策者、科学家和民间团体合作拯救海洋环境?

One hundred companies dominate 60% of the ocean economy. Can they work with policymakers, scientists, and civil society to lead the sustainable way?

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(4)鳗鱼网: 鳗鱼百科 | 日本鳗生活史:探寻了半个多世纪,我们才知道它的故乡在哪里

长久以来,日本鳗鱼被视为一种相当神秘的食材。因为从来没有人见过它们的卵或者幼体。尽管进行了大规模的研究,科学家们才发现日本鳗鱼在远至西太平洋的北马里亚纳群岛附近的水域产卵。

The Japanese eels has long been a mysterious morsel because nobody had ever seen their eggs or larvae. Despite large scale studies, it was only a few year ago that scientists successfully figure out that the Japanese eels spawn in the waters off the Northern Mariana Islands in the western Pacific ocean.

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(5) 中外对话:清除河流和海洋中塑料垃圾的20项发明

从塑料粉碎机到航拍无人机,本文总结全球正在开发应对海洋塑料污染的新技术。

From plastic-devouring machines to watchful drones, these technologies are helping tackle plastic pollution in the ocean.

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学术 Academics

(1) 【气候海洋】南极洲的生态系统服务:对当前状况,未来挑战和管理机会的全球评估

[Climate & Ocean] Ecosystem services in Antarctica: Global assessment of the current state, future challenges and managing opportunities

南极洲的生态系统服务包括气候调节、文化价值和生物资源等。而这些服务对全球生态系统功能的价值还没有得到完善的评估。研究者通过专家征询和学术文章收集,更好地评估了南极生态系统服务的价值,为解决未来南极洲保护与冲突解决提供了新的视角。

阅读/Read


(2) 【海洋生态】南大洋的海洋生态系统评估:迎接保护地球生态系统的长期挑战

[Ocean Ecosystem] Marine Ecosystem Assessment for the Southern Ocean: Meeting the Challenge for Conserving Earth Ecosystems in the Long Term

该特刊收录多篇关于南大洋生态系统的学术文章,涵盖气候、生物地球化学、海洋酸化等诸多方面。

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(3)【海洋生态】对于冰芯的化学研究展示了南极海冰变化趋势

 [Ocean Ecosystem] Ice core chemistry study expands insight into sea ice variability in Southern Hemisphere

缅因大学的研究者领导的一项研究显示,南半球的海冰覆盖是极其多变的,无论是从夏天到冬天,或是从一个千禧年到下一个千禧年。总体来说,海冰面积在过去1万年的时间里一直在上升,但有时也有例外。

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(4)  【渔业管理】混合种群渔业中的保护风险和组合效应

[Fishery Management] Conservation risks and portfolio effects in mixed‐stock fisheries

不少渔民选择混养这一看似提高生物多样性的养殖方式,但过度捕捞下的混合渔业反而加速的生物多样性的丧失。研究选择了太平洋三文鱼养殖业为对象,模拟了混合种群渔业,探索生物多样性的不同维度和相对于养护和渔业目标的渔业绩效之间的关系。生物多样性的不同方面(种群数量、均匀性、种群间的不同步性、种群生产力的异质性)加剧了渔业和养护目标之间的权衡难度。研究发现,减少捕捞或加强管理,可以在渔业和其他自然资源管理系统中更好地保护生物多样性并从中受益。

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(5) 【划区管理】降级,缩小规模,甚至失效:海洋保护区的PADDD问题

[Area-based Management] Protected area downgrading, downsizing, and degazettement (PADDD) in marine protected areas

文章记录了海洋保护区(MPA)中已经发生和或正在提议中的PADDD事件。其中,澳洲大规模的降低海洋保护区的法律标准,允许更多的进行商业和娱乐性捕捞。其中珊瑚海海洋公园的降级是迄今为止规模最大的保护区降级。作者呼吁从科学和政策的角度确保海洋保护区的有效性。

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(6)【渔业管理】处于十字路口的中国渔业:中国海鲜生产和消费的变化分析

[Fishery Management] China at a Crossroads: An Analysis of China's Changing Seafood Production and Consumption

通过对现有统计数据的研究,并与中国的主要政策目标结合,研究人员估算出2030年国内的海产品生产和消费总量。结果显示,到2030年,海产品的消费需求有可能超过国内产量。为了弥补这一空白,中国有可能尝试通过增加离岸渔业养殖,增加进口等方式来满足需求。

阅读/Read


其他资料 Other resources

【能源】国际能源署发布2050净零排放指南
[Energy] IEA: Net Zero by 2050
报告/Report


【海洋】联合国教科文组织《海洋碳综合研究:海洋碳研究概述及未来十年海洋碳研究和观测展望》 
[Ocean] Integrated ocean carbon research: a summary of ocean carbon research, and vision of coordinated ocean carbon research and observations for the next decade
报告/Report


【渔业】美国海洋和大气管理局向国会提交的关于美国渔业状况的年度报告
[Fishery] Annual Report to Congress on the Status of U.S. Fisheries
报告/Report


【生物多样性】联合国环境规划署《2020保护地球报告》
[Biodiversity] Protected Planet Report 2020
报告/Report


【海洋】海军掏钱,海洋买单 | 军事经费与科学发展的复杂往事
[Ocean] Science on a Mission: How Military Funding Shaped What We Do and Don't Know About the Ocean
书籍/Book


活动 Events

>>预告 Upcoming Events

2021年06月15日 创绿研究院《保护海洋:多少才够:全球海洋保护目标的历史讨论》发布
2021.06.15 Greenovation Hub Protecting Ocean: How much is Enough: A Historical Discussion of Global Ocean Protection Goals  Report Launch
详情/Detail


2021年06月07日《南极:生命浮现》马友友带你进入南大洋的音乐之旅
2021.06.07 Antarctica: Life Emerging: Join Paul Nicklen, Yo-Yo Ma, Marcus Goddard, and Katie Couric for a musical journey through the icy landscape of Antarctica.
详情/Detail


2021年06月17日 网络研讨会 促进渔业管理中的生态系统方法:大西洋鲱鱼的案例
2021.06.17 Webinar Fostering Ecosystem Approaches in Fisheries Management: The Case of Atlantic Menhaden
详情/Detail


2021年06月09日 网络研讨会 环境科学和虎鲸的故事
2021.06.09 NOAA Live! Webinar Series: Killer Whale Tales: Environmental Science through Storytelling
详情/Detail


2021年04月-2021年12月 网络研讨会 日内瓦基于自然的解决方案
2021.04-2021.12 Webinar Geneva Nature-based Solutions
详情/Detail


>>回顾 Recordings

2021年05月16日 侨联大会蓝色经济分论坛五:蓝色产业的机遇与挑战
2021 Annual Meeting on Financing Green Technologies Sub-Forum 5: Blue Industry: Opportunities and Challenges
详情/Detail


2020年12月08日 为海洋保护区开发一个财务可持续性评估工具
2020.12.08 Developing a financial sustainability assessment tool for Marine Protected Areas
详情/Detail


2020年06月18日 听Adam Summers博士谈谈鱼类,Friday Habor实验室,生物力学和《海洋总动员》
2020.6.18 Fish, Friday Harbor Lab, Biomechanics and Finding Nemo with Dr. Adam Summers
详情/Detail


2021年03月30日 与海洋行动组织(Ocean Action)一起落实SDG 14
2021.03.30 Implementing Sdg 14 with the Communities of Ocean Action
详情/Detail


2020年05月20日 前沿专家讨论如何用综合海洋管理办法来使海洋资源的使用和保护更加平衡
2020.05.20 Leading experts address how an Integrated Ocean Management approach offers the tools to enable a more balanced approach to the use and conservation of ocean resources
详情/Detail


2021年05月18日 2021 线上海洋对话:关注气候、食物和自然
2021.5.18 Virtual Ocean Dialogues 2021: To Focus on Climate, Food, and Nature
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>>其他 Others

本快讯两周更新一期,往期内容可以查看这里。如果您在快讯内容或形式上有任何意见或建议,欢迎发邮件至ocean@ghub.org告诉我们,也欢迎您将《蓝色脉搏》推荐给同事和朋友

我们正在跟踪新冠疫情导致的海洋相关国际会议安排的变动,最新的信息在这里

感谢实习同事章学磊对本期快讯的贡献


题图:世界上唯一一艘捕鲸母船日新丸号   Kyodo Senpaku Co | 制