Issue 27 | Blue Pulse: Marine Conservation Bulletin

日期:

In the latest issue of Blue Pulse Bulletin, we shifted our attention towards the Leaders Summit on Climate. While many political leaders have vowed to tackle the carbon emission problem on land, they should not overlook the tight-knit relationship between climate policy and ocean policy.

导语 Introduction

关键点

本期蓝色脉搏的视线再次转向气候变化与海洋保护的关系。气候与海洋在物质层面的相互作用一直存在,只是最近几年国际社会才开始从治理层面审视二者之间的联系,并试图在战略上和行动中采取更加综合考虑二者的方法。这一趋势反映在在气候变化领导人峰会上,智利总统宣布将推动公海保护区的建设来应对气候危机。前美国海洋和极地谈判代表团的团长也撰文认为克里气候特使的上海之行将为两国的海洋合作开启窗口。本期的学术版块也收录了气候变化对海洋生物多样性影响的相关论文。

Highlights

This issue of Blue Pulse turns its attention once again to the relationship between climate change and marine conservation. The interplay between climate and oceans at the physical level has always existed, but only in recent years has the international community begun to look at the linkages between the two at the governance level and attempt to take a more holistic approach in both strategy making and in action. This trend was reflected at the Climate Change Leaders Summit, where the President of Chile announced that Chile would promote the designation of marine protected areas on the high seas to address the climate crisis. The former head of the US delegation to the negotiations on oceans and polar issues also writes that climate envoy Kerry's's trip to Shanghai will open a window for cooperation between the two countries on the oceans. The academic section of this issue also includes papers on the impact of climate change on marine biodiversity.


时讯 News

科学家们认为,气候变化正在导致极端天气的增加
Jerry Perry NOAA 摄

(1) 领导人气候峰会:40多国领导人作出承诺 联合国再次呼吁“奔向零碳”

Leaders Summit on Climate: 40 World leaders promise to tackle climate change and the UN, once again, calls for a net-zero path.

查看/View


(2) 智利总统皮涅拉宣布智利将推进一项在东南太平洋公海区域设立严格保护的海洋保护区的提案。

 Chile's President Piñera announces Chile will advance a proposal to fully protect an area of the high seas in the Southeastern Pacific, the first of its kind.

查看/View


(3) 欧盟主办的国际海洋治理论坛于4月23-24日线上举办。会议旨在进一步加强国际海洋治理,促进海洋的可持续利用以及向蓝色经济的转型。

The International Ocean Governance (IOG) Forum took place online on 23-24 of April to further strengthen international ocean governance for the sustainable use of oceans and seas and the shift to the blue economy. 

查看/View


(4)中国首次派遣远洋渔业公海转载观察员

China assigns first on-board observers to distant-water fishing vessels.

查看/View


(5) 海产品工作组 (SWG) 于4月20日星期二发表声明,敦促海产品零售商和买家谨慎看待FISH(公平、诚信、安全和健康)船员标准的有效性。这一标准旨在识别海产品供应链中的劳工虐待问题。

The Seafood Working Group (SWG) released a statement on Tuesday, 20 April, urging seafood retailers and buyers to regard the Fairness, Integrity, Safety, and Health (FISH) Standard for Crew warily in terms of its effectiveness as a mechanism for the identification of labor abuse on fishing vessels in seafood supply chains.

查看/View


观点 Perspectives

新的研究显示,在不损害渔业的情况下,各国可以保护高达70%的海洋
Enric Sala National Geographic 制

(1)  Evan Bloom:”气候特使克里到访上海为两国在海洋领域的合作打下基础。“

 Evan Bloom: "Kerry's Shanghai Visit Opens the Door for Engagement on Oceans."

查看/View


(2) Boris Worm博士等:“相比于只顾保护偏远角落,针对人口密集的沿海地区的海洋保护策略可以获得颠覆性的气候效益”

Dr. Boris Worm et al.: "An ocean protection strategy that targets densely populated coastal areas, rather than ringfencing the most remote corners, could deliver game-changing climate benefits."

查看/View


(3) Gerald Singh博士等:“ 为了使海洋变成我们所期待的样子,我们必须更好地去了解那些以海洋为生的人的需求和偏好,并为他们评估潜在的解决方案。”

Dr. Gerald Singh et al. :"To achieve the ocean we want, we must better understand the needs and priorities of ocean-dependent peoples and evaluate potential solutions for them."

查看/View


(4)Assheton Carter博士:”深海矿产的责任供应链指南会与陆地上的指南有巨大的区别。为了建立负责任的深海矿物供应链,我们需要制定新的框架和标准,留给我们的时间已经不多了。”

Dr. Assheton Carter: "There will be significant gaps between guidance designed for land-based mineral extraction and those designed for the deep sea. To establish responsible supply chains for deep-sea minerals will require the development of new bespoke sourcing frameworks and standards, and time is short for this to happen."

查看/View


(5) Lisa Levin:“气候政策和海洋政策不可分割!”

 Lisa Levin :"Stop separating climate policy from ocean policy!"

查看/View


解读 Interpretations

淡水渔业有很多优势,比如说可持续性和成本低廉
Sukree Sukplang Reuters 制

(1)世界经济论坛:为什么更多的陆上养鱼场可以改善全球粮食安全?

 研究表明, 淡水养殖比海水养殖更具有可持续性。证据显示淡水养殖的经济和资源限制较少。陆地上的水产养殖在维护全球粮食安全方面也有着更大的潜力。

 The World Economic Forum: "Studies suggest that freshwater fish farms are a more sustainable alternative to 'mariculture' - farming at sea. Evidence shows there are fewer economic and resource constraints for freshwater aquaculture. There is also greater potential for land based fish farms to help global food security."

查看/View


(2)世界经济论坛:无人船艇将改变我们对于海洋的认知

五月花号(MAS)无人船利用人工智能技术和太阳能动力独立航行,收集重要的数据以加深我们对海洋的理解。未来,由自主研究船,无人机和潜水器组成的编队能够在海上停留数月,让海洋学家有更多时间来解析收集到的数据,而不是把时间花在数据采集上。

The Mayflower Autonomous Ship (MAS) uses AI and energy from the sun to independently traverse the ocean, gathering vital data to expand our understanding of on ocean. In the future, networks of autonomous research vessels, drones and submerisbles could spend months at sea, allowing human oceanographers more time for data interpretation and action rather than data collection.

查看/View

(3)中外对话:松散而软弱的执法助长墨西哥-中国之间的非法海马贸易

 传统中医药理论认为,海马能够壮阳,所以中医药行业对海马的需求很大。然而,由于墨西哥的海马出口禁令,海马贸易已经转入地下,但是仍然很活跃。

Seahorses are high in demand in China for their use in traditional Chinese medicine, due to their supposed aphrodisiac properties. However, with a ban on exports from Mexico, the trade has been pushed underground but still remains active.

查看/View


(4)中外对话:遏制珊瑚礁间的炸鱼:马来西亚沙巴州的故事

新冠疫情使马来西亚沙巴州的旅游业遭受重创,当地人的生计也受到极大影响。他们之中的很多人重新将目光投向了渔业。但是,NGOs和当地的政府担心他们会重新采用具有破坏性的炸鱼方式来进行捕捞。

Tourism in Sabah, Malaysis has been hit badly by the andemic, and local people struggling to make living. Many of them turn their eyes into fishing as an alternative. However, NGOs and local authorities fear a resurgence of the destructive fish bombing method.

查看/View


(5)Mongabay News:大坝使长江白鱀豚灭绝,同样的事也可以发生在亚马逊流域

亚马逊江豚可能会重蹈长江白鱀豚的覆辙,因为它们正面临着同样的威胁,比如水电大坝,误捕,以及汞中毒。

The Amazon's dolphins could go the way of the baiji in China, since they are facing the same threats, ranging from hydropower dams, to bycatch, to mercury poisoning.

查看/View


学术 Academics

(1) 【技术工具】利用碱化作用来中和地中海大气中的二氧化碳并减轻海洋酸化的影响

[Tech & Tools] Alkalinization Scenarios in the Mediterranean Sea for Efficient Removal of Atmospheric CO2 and the Mitigation of Ocean Acidification

研究人员通过往地中海中添加氢氧化钙来中和海洋中的二氧化碳,以此减轻海洋酸化的速度。结果显示,与基线的pH值趋势成比例的逐渐增加 氢氧化钙的排放能够有效减轻研究区域的酸化速度,同时,海水对大气中的二氧化碳吸收能力只受到轻微减弱。除此以外,研究者也呼吁从生态和生理角度来评估这一技术的影响。

阅读/Read


(2) 【蓝色经济】全球水产养殖业20年回顾

[Blue Economy] A 20-year retrospective review of global aquaculture

研究回顾了1997年到2017年全球水产养殖业的发展状况,包括了本行业的所有子部门,并且强调了水产养殖业在全球粮食系统的一体化。亚洲的内陆水产养殖对全球产量和粮食安全贡献最大。尽管对来自于海洋的原料的需求依然存在,对陆地资源的依赖有所增加,饲养效率有着显著增加。软体动物和海藻在确保营养安全和粮食安全的作用依然有待探索。未来,气候变化和病菌对养殖业的影响依然难以预测。

阅读/Read


(3)【划区管理】在参与度假村开设的环境保护公众科学项目三年后,参与者对环境议题热情不减

[Area-based Management]  Environmental Awareness Gained During a Citizen Science Project in Touristic Resorts Is Maintained After 3 Years Since Participation

2012至2013年期间,埃及Marsa Alam的度假村开展了一个关于环境的教育项目。之后,参与者通过问卷的形式回答了参与项目期间的一些问题。三年后,他们被要求重新回答这些问题。除此以外,还包括了一个新增的心理变化部分。尽管样本容量有限(55人参加了回访),但参与者在对这一类项目,以及环境议题的意识和参与度都有所提高。

阅读/Read


(4)【气候与海洋】海鲜可持续性的再思考:渔业和气候变化之间的协同和取舍

[Climate & Ocean] Rethinking sustainability in seafood: Synergies and trade-offs between fisheries and climate change

研究发现,用兼捕率较高的围网方式捕上来的鲣鱼的单位蛋白气候影响要小于用兼捕率较低的曳绳钓捕得的鲣鱼。更加可持续的海产食品做法的核心目标是尽量减少对环境的影响,因此,减缓气候变化的努力--无论是针对保护、栖息地保护或气候影响--应考虑对渔业保护的意外后果。

阅读/Read


(5)【气候与海洋】温暖的栖息地对冷水鱼生长方式的重要性

[Climate & Ocean] The importance of warm habitat to the growth regime of cold-water fishes

研究发现,温暖的河流栖息地似乎在支持冷水鱼类的生存方面发挥着比预期更大的作用。温暖的下游河流栖息地,在春季和秋季,能够为冷水鱼的繁殖助力。研究强调在制定保护措施的时候,不应忽视暖水区而只注重保护冷水区域。

阅读/Read


(6) 【气候与海洋】气候变化的视觉影响:深度变化对水生生物的视觉识别的影响

[Climate & Ocean] The sensory impacts of climate change: bathymetric shifts and visually mediated interactions in aquatic species

气候变化促使一些鱼类进入更凉爽的深水区。研究者发现,即使深度有小幅度的增加,也会使鱼类更难辨别它们用来寻找食物及同类所需的色相。研究者试图找到哪一种鱼类受到的影响最大,以及它们能否最终适应这种变化。

阅读/Read


其他资料 Other resources

【海洋】力挽狂澜:一个海洋学家眼中的诺曼底登陆日
[Ocean] Turning the Tide: D-Day from an Oceanographer's Perspective
播客/Podcast


【生物多样性】 专题:生物多样性保护与生态文明 |中国科学院院刊
[Biodiversity] Special Topic: Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Civilization
报告/Report


【海洋】 海洋科学领域云平台上线试运行
[Ocean] A Cloud Platform for Big Data and AI in Ocean Science now available
资料集/Databaset


【海洋】未解之谜:海洋中的中层带
[Ocean] Unexplainable: The Twilight Zone of the ocean
播客/Podcast


【海洋】美国海洋和淡水水体富营养化的社会经济影响
[Ocean] Proceedings of the Workshop on the Socio-economic Effects of Marine and Fresh Water Harmful Algal Blooms in the U.S
报告/Report


活动 Events

>>预告 Upcoming Events

2021年05月12日 网络研讨会 渔业中的劳工权益:FisheryProgress 引入新的社会政策
2021.05.12  Webinar The Human Side of Fishery Improvement: FisheryProgress Introduces Social Policy
详情/Detail


2021年5月16日 2021金融支持绿色科技年会 “蓝色产业的机遇和挑战”分论坛
详情/Detail


2021年05月26日 网络研讨会 如何更好地将金融手段与生物多样性目标结合
2021.05.26  Webinar Aligning Financial Portfolios with Biodiversity Goals
详情/Detail


2021年06月08日 网络研讨会 联合国世界海洋日
2021.06.08 Webinar United Nations World Oceans Day
详情/Detail


2021年09月 会议 会议通知 | “拓展海洋经济发展空间与中国海洋战略”青年论坛
2021.09. Conference: Youth Forum on Exploring the Development of China's Oceanic Economy and China's Marine Strategy
详情/Detail


>>回顾 Recordings

2020年03月26日 鱼到哪里去了?科学家如何在茫茫大海之中追踪鱼类
2020.3.26 Where did my fish go? How scientists are working together to track fish over vast ocean space
详情/Detail


2021年04月08日 利用海洋保护区游客追踪系统(NMS-COUNT) 来监测海洋保护区的使用情况
2021.04.08 Monitoring marine sanctuary usage with NMS-COUNT
详情/Detail


2021年04月20日 海洋社会科学:促进人类与海洋的关系理解
2021.04.20 The Marine Social Science Network: Promoting understanding of people's relationship with the sea
详情/Detail


2021年05月06日 美国的30x30规划:评估美国管辖下海域的保护情况
2021.05.06 Planning for 30x30 in the US: Assessing Protection in US Waters
详情/Detail


>>其他 Others

本快讯两周更新一期,往期内容可以查看这里。如果您在快讯内容或形式上有任何意见或建议,欢迎发邮件至ocean@ghub.org告诉我们,也欢迎您将《蓝色脉搏》推荐给同事和朋友

我们正在跟踪新冠疫情导致的海洋相关国际会议安排的变动,最新的信息在这里

感谢实习同事章学磊对本期快讯的贡献


题图:科学家们认为,气候变化正在导致极端天气的增加, Jerry Perry NOAA | 制