Issue 14 | Blue Pulse: Marine Conservation Bulletin

日期:

With the United Nations Biodiversity Summit held last week, discussions on the process of biodiversity conservation are gaining momentum. While the annual meeting of the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) is approaching and discussions on the process of establishing marine protected areas in the Antarctic Peninsula are gathering momentum.

导语 Introduction

关键点1:

在联合国生物多样性峰会之前,第五部《全球生物多样性展望》的发布为各国领导人的发言设立了背景。《展望》对爱知生物多样性目标实现情况的评估显示出清晰而巨大的挑战,特别是落实状况最好的划区保护目标为什么没有带动其他目标的实现,是目标设定的问题还是执行的问题?这些都是值得反思的。下一个十年是气候与生物多样性保护的决胜十年,要扭转败局,不仅需要更有雄心的口头承诺,更需要准备好充足的资源开展国内行动和国际合作。

Highlight 1:

The 5th Global Biodiversity Outlook (GBO-5) published right before the UN Biodiversity summit has set the stage for the world leaders' speeches. The assessment of the progress of the Aichi Targets in GBO-5 has shown clear and great challenges. Especially why the relatively successful area based conservation did not lead to success in achieving other targets? The problem is in target setting or in implementation? Such questions require further reflection. Next decade will determine the result of the battle of protecting climate and biodiversity. To reverse our failing trend, besides ambitious commitments, more resources need to be mobilized for domestic actions and international cooperation.


关键点2:

10月即将在线上举行的南极海洋生物资源养护委员会将继续审议海洋保护区的提案。本期的学术部分收录了两篇关于南极半岛区域海洋保护区的论文,供关注这一进程的伙伴们参考。

Highlight 2:

The upcoming annual meeting of the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources will continue the discussion on the MPA proposals. The Academic section has collected two papers about the MPA in the Antarctic Peninsula region for the interested readers.


时讯 News

图片
Fifth Global Biodiversity Outlook Focuses on Eight Transition Areas | SDG Knowledge Hub, IISD


(1) 第五部《全球生物多样性展望》(GBO-5)发布“决策者摘要”建议采取与以下方面有关的 “组合行动”:加强生态系统的保护和恢复;减缓气候变化;针对污染、外来入侵物种和过度开发采取行动;更可持续地生产商品和服务;以及减少消费和浪费。

The Fifth Global Biodiversity Outlook summary for policy makers suggests pursuing a "portfolio of actions" related to: enhanced conservation and restoration of ecosystems; climate change mitigation; action on pollution, invasive alien species, and overexploitation; more sustainable production of goods and services; and reduced consumption and waste.

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(2) 中国海洋生态环保“十四五”规划编制全面启动。“十四五”规划关注的重点是近岸海域的生态环境保护,而近岸海域水生态环境好坏则体现在海湾上。“十四五”期间,我国将以海湾为突破口全面提升海洋生态环境质量。目前,上海等4个试点城市已经完成规划编制的先行先试。在4个城市试点的基础上,全国海洋生态环保“十四五”规划的编制工作将开始全面推进。

The preparation of China's Fourteenth Five-Year Plan for marine ecological environmental protection has been launched in full swing. The focus of the Fourteenth Five-Year Plan is on the ecological and environmental protection of near-shore waters, and the quality of the near-shore water ecological environment is reflected in the gulf. During the Fourteenth Five-Year Plan period, China will use the Gulf as a breakthrough to comprehensively improve the quality of the marine ecological environment. At present, four pilot cities, including Shanghai, have completed the planning of the first trial. On the basis of the four pilot cities, the preparation of the national marine ecological and environmental protection plan for the Fourteenth Five-Year Plan will begin in earnest.

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(3) 欧盟和中国的领导人通过视频会议讨论了生物多样性和气候变化、贸易和投资、COVID-19应对、国际事务等问题。欧盟和中国领导人对《欧盟-中国全面协议》谈判取得进展以及签署《欧盟-中国地理标志协议》表示欢迎。双方同意建立环境与气候高级别对话和中欧数字合作高级别对话。

Leaders from the EU and China discussed biodiversity and climate change, trade and investment, COVID-19 response, international affairs, and other issues via video conference. EU and Chinese leaders welcomed progress on the negotiations for the EU-China Comprehensive Agreement and the signature of the EU-China Agreement on Geographical Indications. The two sides agreed to establish a High-Level Environment and Climate Dialogue and a China-EU High Level Digital Cooperation Dialogue.

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(4) 大西洋海农场是美国第一家商业化海藻养殖场,今年的海带产量超过45万磅,比2019年的数字翻了一番。该公司在整个新英格兰地区扩大了零售范围,预计将在2021年初打入一个更大的全国性杂货零售连锁店。

Atlantic Sea Farms, the first commercial seaweed farm in the United States, has produced more than 450,000 pounds of kelp this year, doubling its 2019 numbers. The company expanded its retail reach throughout New England and is expected to hit a larger national grocery retail chain in early 2021.

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(5) 宁波海上鲜信息科技有限公司是一家致力于中国渔船队数字化的公司,其B2B互联网服务获得了行业大奖。该公司开发出的 "海上鲜"应用,让拖网渔船在海上就能卖出渔获物。近日,在上海举行的中国B2B互联网年度峰会上,宁波海上鲜信息科技有限公司被评选为2020年中国产业互联网百强企业。

A company committed to digitizing the Chinese fishing fleet has won an industry award for its B2B internet services. Ningbo Hai Shang Xian Information Technology Ltd. Co., which developed the “Hai Shang Xian” (literally “On the Sea Fresh”), allowing trawlers sell their catches while still at sea, was chosen as one of the Top 100 Chinese Industrial Internet Companies in 2020 at the annual China B2B Internet Summit in Shanghai recently.

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观点 Perspectives

图片
西藏羌塘国家级自然保护区的藏羚羊群 | Xinhua/Alamy Live News


(1) 孔令钰:“ COP15的主题是“生态文明:共建地球生命共同体”,这恰可以体现中国由内而外的政治驱动力——“生态文明”自2007年首次在中共十七大被提出,后来被提升到国家战略。而2020年是中国“十三五”收官之年,意味着生态文明示范体系得以全面构建。可见COP15对于中国来说,有着国内和国际两个层面的重大意义。但领导力体现的关键,在于如何在外交上合纵连横,让196个缔约方最终能够达成共识。”

Kong Lingyu:" The theme for COP15, “Ecological civilization building: a shared future for all life on Earth”, reflects a strong political will for international environmental governance rooted in domestic politics. The concept of the ecological civilization was put forward at the 17th National Congress of the Communist Party of China in 2007, and then elevated to the status of a national strategy. With 2020 being the final year of China’s 13th Five Year Plan, a domestic system showcasing the concept has been established. And so COP15 is important for China on both the domestic and international levels. But the key to displaying leadership at COP15 will be how to bring the 196 signatories to the convention to a consensus."

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(2) Olive Heffernan:“随着一系列海洋地球工程实地试验推进,人们的注意力转向了应该如何对相关研究和最终部署进行管理。管理海洋地球工程的一种可能的方式是通过一部新法律来保护公海海洋生物。目前联合国正在协商制定一部这样的法律,可能要求任何在公海上的活动首先进行环境影响评价,这是一个判断对海洋生物潜在损害的正式程序。虽然此规则会使在公海上开展有害实验的可能性受到限制,但一些人认为有必要对地球工程进行更有组织的高层次管理。”

Olive Heffernan:" With a range of marine geoengineering field trials moving forward, attention is turning to how research and eventual deployment should be governed. One possibility for governing marine geoengineering is through a new law to protect marine life on the high seas. The law, which is currently being negotiated by the UN, will likely require any activity that takes place on the open ocean to first undertake an environmental impact assessment, a formal process to gauge potential damage to marine life. While this would limit the possibility of harmful experimentation in the open ocean, some feel there is a need for more structured, high level governance of geoengineering. "

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(3) Chris Chase:“世界贸易组织于2019年1月成立的一个小组,负责审查美国对来自中国的商品所征收的关税,该小组认为,根据世贸组织规则,征收的关税是不合理的。2018年7月征收的第一套关税涉及2340亿美元(1978亿欧元)的中国商品,包括数百种海产品。这些最初的关税引发了一场持续至今的贸易战。”

Chris Chase:" A World Trade Organization panel established in January 2019 to examine U.S. tariffs on goods from China has found that the tariffs were not justifiable under WTO rules. The tariffs, the first set of which was imposed in July 2018, covered USD 234 billion (EUR 197.8 billion) in Chinese goods, including hundreds of seafood products. Those initial tariffs sparked a trade war that has continued to this day."

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(4) PEW:“为了确保渔业可持续发展,管理人员需要关于渔获量和船只活动的准确数据。但是,由于有数千艘船只在公海上作业,当局无法触及和查看,收集和审查数据可能很困难。电子监测(EM)计划为区域渔业管理组织--负责规制世界95%海洋中工业化捕鱼的国际组织--提供了一个性价比较高的方法来加强监督。精心设计的电子监测规则可以获得更好的数据和更强的渔业管理,同时改善鱼群和渔民的状况。”

PEW:" To ensure that fisheries are sustainable, managers need accurate data on catch and vessel activity. But with thousands of vessels operating on the high seas, beyond the reach and view of authorities, gathering and reviewing data can be difficult. Electronic monitoring (EM) programs offer regional fisheries management organizations—the multinational groups responsible for overseeing commercial fishing in 95% of the world’s ocean—an efficient, cost-effective way to increase oversight. Well-designed EM programs lead to better data and stronger fisheries governance, improving outcomes for both fish and fishers."

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(5) Kiley Price:“联合国第五期《全球生物多样性展望》为世界各国在2010年承诺的20个目标,即爱知生物多样性目标,提供了一份进展报告。报告承认过去十年在保护方面取得的成就,包括在整个太平洋岛屿消灭了多种入侵物种,以及某些地区的森林砍伐率有所下降,但报告对大多数目标总体上缺乏进展表示谴责。报告强调需要从爱知目标下的不足之处吸取教训,并概述了各国必须采取的八个步骤,包括建立更多的保护区,投资于城市的绿色基础设施,以及实施基于自然的解决方案以减少温室气体排放。”

Kiley Price:" The UN’s fifth Global Biodiversity Outlook offers a progress report for a set of 20 goals, known as the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, that countries around the world committed to in 2010 to slow biodiversity loss by this year. Acknowledging conservation wins from the last decade, including the eradication of multiple invasive species across the Pacific Islands and a decline in deforestation rates in certain areas, the report condemns the overall lack of progress toward most of the targets. Emphasizing the need to learn from shortcomings under the Aichi targets, the report outlines eight steps countries must take, including establishing more protected areas, investing in green infrastructure in cities and implementing nature-based solutions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions."

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学术 Academics

(1) 【划区管理】为成功而规划:利用两种生态系统模式支持南极海洋保护区的发展

[Area-based management] Planning for success: Leveraging two ecosystem models to support development of an Antarctic marine protected area

研究表明,EWE和KPFM2两种生态系统模型的联合使用阐明了南极海洋保护区的潜在利益;有效的南极海洋保护区应包括磷虾聚集和捕食者觅食;在科学和决策者之间建立联系,为决策提供支持;联合使用现有的模型是很有价值的,可以及时用科学建议支持决策。

阅读/Read


(2) 【渔业管理】比较在变化中的南极海域推进基于生态系统的渔业管理的反馈式和空间管理的方法

[Fisheries management] Comparing feedback and spatial approaches to advance ecosystem-based fisheries management in a changing Antarctic

在南大洋,解决以磷虾为生的捕食者和磷虾渔业之间权衡的两种选择包括 "反馈管理"(FBM)战略和海洋保护区(MPA)。研究比较了气候变化下南极半岛和斯科舍海拟议的海洋保护区中两种可能的FBM选择。反馈方案之一基于南极磷虾的密度,预测磷虾捕食者的一些种群的丰度会略有增加;而第二个FBM方案基于企鹅丰度的变化,结果比较复杂,一些地区预测捕食者的数量会下降。与两种反馈策略相比,MPA导致一些(但不是全部)掠食者种群的增长更大。结论是,这些不同的结果与选择将捕鱼和捕食者觅食分开的方式有关,要么通过不断转移捕鱼的空间分布,使其远离潜在的脆弱种群(FBM),要么通过永久关闭捕鱼区域(MPA)。对于磷虾渔业,研究表明,使用FBM方法可以维持总渔获量;使用MPA使总渔获量略微增加,但渔业将被迫调整捕鱼地点,甚至在磷虾密度相对较低的区域。

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(3) 【气候·海洋】气候变化对南大洋沿海和海冰区初级生产和相关生物地球化学循环的影响

[Climate change · Ocean] Impact of climate change on the primary production and related biogeochemical cycles in the coastal and sea ice zone of the Southern Ocean

初级生产和相关营养物质的季节性周期与海冰和海面温度的季节性变化密切相关。随着海冰的退缩,使整个海面的能量和气体交换得以进行,浮游植物开始生长,在约40米的浅海深度内消耗积累的营养物质,物理、生物和化学变量的季节性演变表现出空间和时间上的一致性。气候变化改变了季节周期的时间和幅度。虽然初级生产普遍增加,二氧化碳吸收量增加,但一些地区的生产量减少(如印度洋东部的普里兹湾)。

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(4) 【极地海洋】中国《海洋基本法》中的“极地条款”研拟问题

[Polar Ocean] The development of the "polar clause" in China's Basic Law on the Ocean

中国《海洋基本法》立法有必要纳入"极地条款",这可以宣示中国极地事务的基本立场、基本政策并为中国极地立法确定上位法依据。就立法体例而言,可以将其放置在《海洋基本法》的"海洋区域"或"公海、国际海底区域与极地"部分,采取南北极条款分别表述的形式。其具体内容应当充分考虑南北极不同的国际形势、法律秩序以及中国的战略定位。"南极条款"主要宣示中国南极事务基本法律原则,授权制定国家南极事务规划,规定中国可以开展的南极活动,宣示中国将积极参与南极治理和视察等监督活动。"北极条款"应宣示中国参与北极事务的原则、主要法律依据及基本范畴,并规定中国开展北极活动的重点领域。

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(5) 【划区管理】三项海洋保护划区倡议的治理经验:评估参数和前进道路

[Area-based management] Experiences With Governance in Three Marine Conservation Zoning Initiatives: Parameters for Assessment and Pathways Forward

本研究审视了三个海洋保护区((1)南非的Tsitsikamma海洋保护区;(2) 巴西的圣保罗北部海岸海洋保护区;(3) 加拿大的Gwai Haanas国家海洋保护区)中的治理挑战,这些保护区中权利、资源的获取和区域规划与不断变化的社会和生态条件相互交织。许多MPA和相关的选划都位于依靠海洋和沿海资源为生的沿海社区附近。因此,划区过程必须回应当地对自然资源的利用问题。研究强调了保护划区如何与不同利益攸关者对一系列治理层面的看法相互交织,包括:(1)参与和遵守的程度;(2)划区和保护目标的清晰度;(3)生计影响和利益;(4)生态和保护利益的证据;(5)对地方归属感的影响。

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其他资料 Other Intel

【海洋宏观】播客:为了下一代,保护南大洋。可持续亚洲和威尔逊中心推出《保护南极海》播客,第一集解释了南极海洋生态系统的重要性以及中国在保护南极海洋生态系统中发挥的作用。

[Ocean in General] Podcast: Protecting the Southern Ocean for China’s next generation. Episode one of this new series from Sustainable Asia and the Wilson Center explains the importance of Antarctica’s pristine marine ecosystem, and China’s role in protecting it.

音频/Audio


【生物多样性】IISD | 《生物多样性公约》特别线上会议简报

[Biodiversity] Briefings of the Convention on Biological Diversity Special Virtual Sessions

文件/File


【生物多样性】IISD | 联合国生物多样性峰会简报

[Biodiversity] Briefing of UN's Biodiversity Summit

文章/Article


【生物多样性】联合国第五部《全球生物多样性展望》

[Biodiversity] The Fifth Global Biodiversity Outlook

报告/Report


活动 Events

>>预告 Announcements

2020年10月05日 “海洋十年”线上系列:"海洋与人类健康 "会议
2020.10.05 Ocean Decade Virtual Series : "Ocean and Human Health" Session
详情/Detail


2020年10月09日 水产养殖的未来:尖端技术的创新
2020.10.09 The Future of Aquaculture: Innovation with Cutting Edge Tech
详情/Detail


2020年10月14日 连接我们的蓝色星球:建立生态连接的海洋保护区网络
2020.10.14 Connecting Our Blue Planet: Building Ecologically Connected Marine Protected Area Networks
详情/Detail


>>回顾 Reviews

2020年09月09日 新冠疫情对沿海和海洋旅游的影响
2020.09.09 The impacts of COVID-19 on coastal and marine tourism
详情/Detail


>>其他 Others

本简报两周更新一期,往期内容可以查看这里。 如果您在简报内容或形式上有任何意见或建议,欢迎发邮件至ocean@ghub.org告诉我们,也欢迎您将《蓝色脉搏》推荐给同事和朋友

我们正在跟踪新冠疫情导致的海洋相关国际会议安排的变动,最新的信息在这里


题图:Marine geoengineering climate intervention © NASA