Issue 13 | Blue Pulse: Marine Conservation Bulletin

日期:

The impact of climate change on the polar oceans is once again the focus of Blue Pulse’s attention, along with our concern that the design and management of marine protected areas determines the costs and benefits of conservation.

导语 Introduction

关键点1

气候变化对极地海洋的影响再次成为《蓝色脉搏》关注的焦点,本期学术板块收录的论文讨论了南北极海洋在气候变化下已经发生的海冰和水体变化以及不同升温程度对生态系统的影响。

Highlight1:

The impact of climate change on the polar ocean draws our attention again. In the Academic section, there are several papers discussing the existing changes of sea ice and water column and potential impacts associated with different warming scenarios.


关键点2

海洋保护区的设计和管理决定着保护的成本和效益。帕劳是今年“我们的海洋”大会的主办国,其海洋保护的行动广受赞誉,但是保护在实施中却导致了意想不到的负面效果。本期的观点中收录的一篇文章讨论了这些问题。学术板块也收录了一篇论文,讨论在南极斯科舍海设立保护区的不同情景对渔业的影响。今年的南极海洋生物资源养护委员会年会(CCAMLR)将于下月在线上召开,会议也将再次讨论气候变化下海洋保护区。

Highlight2:

The design and management of the MPAs determines the cost and benefit of them. Palau is hosting the Our Ocean Conference this year. Its ocean protection actions have been widely commended. However, those actions have caused unexpected impacts. An article in the Perspective section discussed those problems. The academic section of this issue also has a paper discussing the impact of different scenarios of MPA in the Scotia Sea, Antarctica. Both climate change and MPA will be discussed again at the annual meeting of the Commission on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources next month (online).


时讯 News

Getty Images | 制

(1) 多国海洋科学家最近在加拉帕戈斯群岛深海发现了31种新的无脊椎动物。这31个物种分别是,10种竹珊瑚,4种八角珊瑚,12个新海绵物种和4种新的扁龙虾,还包括在群岛周围的太平洋深海中观察到的一个新种海蛇尾。

International marine scientists have recently discovered 31 new invertebrate species in the deep waters of the Galapagos Islands. The 31 species are 10 species of bamboo coral, 4 species of octocorals, 12 new sponge species and 4 new species of squat lobster, including a new species of brittle star observed in the deep Pacific Ocean around the archipelago.

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(2) 新西兰政府上周宣布计划在345艘渔船上安装摄像头。增加使用船上摄像头得到了本届联合政府的支持,旨在提高渔业透明度。摄像机将改善渔业管理信息,并提供国内和国际市场所要求的透明度。更广泛地使用船上摄像机将提高新西兰作为优质、可持续和值得信赖的海产品生产国的声誉。

New Zealand’s government last week announced plans to put cameras on board 345 fishing vessels. The increase in the use of on-board cameras is supported by the current coalition government and is aimed at providing more transparency in the fisheries. Cameras will improve fisheries management information and provide the transparency demanded by domestic and international markets. Wider use of on-board cameras will enhance New Zealand’s reputation as a producer of premium, sustainable, and trusted seafood.

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(3) 欧洲议会和欧盟当时的28个成员国政府于2013年就欧盟共同渔业政策(CFP)的深远改革达成一致意见。目标是通过设定恢复种群、维持健康的生态系统和保障欧盟船队稳定、有利可图的渔业的目标,使渔业具有可持续性。CFP要求各国部长 "尽可能在2015年之前确保所有种群的可持续开发率,最迟在2020年之前逐步递增"。然而,随着2020年结束过度捕捞的最后期限过去,欧盟渔业管理仍不符合科学建议。

The European Parliament and the European Union’s then-28 Member State governments agreed in 2013 on far-reaching reforms to the EU’s Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). The goal is to make fishing sustainable by setting objectives to restore stocks, maintain healthy ecosystems and safeguard stable, profitable fisheries for the EU fleet. The CFP required ministers to ensure sustainable exploitation rates “by 2015 where possible and, on a progressive, incremental basis at the latest by 2020 for all stocks.” Now with the 2020 deadline for ending overfishing passed, EU fisheries management is still not in line with scientific advice.

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(4) 西班牙金枪鱼协会AGAC,即大型金枪鱼冷冻库协会,已全面进入海洋管理委员会(MSC)评估。成功的申请将使全球超过8%的金枪鱼总捕获量被加入到生态标签的可持续发展认证计划中。目前正在对由物种、种群和捕鱼区定义的12个不同的评估单位进行评估,通过评估程序并被推荐认证的单位有资格获得使用MSC生态标签的许可。

Spanish tuna association AGAC, the Association of Large Tuna Freezers, has entered full Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) assessment. A successful application will result in more than 8 percent of the world’s total tuna catch being added to the eco-label’s sustainability certification scheme. Twelve different units of assessment defined by species, stock, and fishing area are being assessed, with units passing assessment process and recommended for certification eligible to be licensed to use the MSC eco-label.

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(5) 欧盟委员会希望加强对萎缩的波罗的海鳕鱼种群的保护。它建议大幅削减2021年波罗的海鳕鱼的总捕捞限额(TACs),新的建议建立在目前种群持续减少并低于健康水平的认识之上。对于西部波罗的海鳕鱼,它建议将TAC减少11%,至3395公吨。此外,它还希望维持2020年通过的额外保护措施,包括在整个地区的产卵禁渔期和对休闲渔民的限制。此外,在东部较深的水域,总可捕量的使用仅限于副渔获物,并禁止娱乐性捕捞。

The European Commission looks to increase protection of shrunken Baltic cod stocks. It has proposed large cuts to the total allowable catches (TACs) of Baltic cod for 2021, with the new advice recognizing that stocks have continued to decrease and are below healthy levels. For western Baltic cod, it recommends an 11 percent reduction in the TAC to 3,395 metric tons. In addition, it wants to maintain the additional protection measures adopted for 2020, including a spawning closure period in the entire area and limits for recreational fishermen. Also, in the deeper waters of the eastern part, the TAC use is limited to by-catches and recreational fishing is forbidden.

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观点 Perspectives

帕劳约20%的劳动力受雇于旅游业,J.W.Alker / Alamy | 摄

(1) Bernadette H. Carreon:“大型海洋保护区成为帕劳大选辩论的焦点。将离任的帕劳总统Tommy Remengesau正面临一股日益高涨的批评浪潮,矛头直指曾被认为是该国最伟大成就之一的一片海洋保护区。帕劳国家海洋保护区被联合国海洋大会誉为'全球最具雄心的海洋保护措施之一'。保护区自2020年1月1日起全面投入运作,其目的是保护帕劳的近海鱼类种群以及全球金枪鱼种群。”

Bernadette H. Carreon:" Large marine protected areas are at the centre of Palau's election debate. Outgoing Palauan President Tommy Remengesau is facing a rising tide of criticism over a marine reserve that was once considered one of the country's greatest achievements. The Palau National Marine Sanctuary has been hailed as 'one of the world's most ambitious marine conservation measures' by the United Nations Ocean Assembly. The sanctuary, which will be fully operational from 1 January 2020, aims to protect Palau's offshore fish stocks as well as global tuna stocks."

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(2) Jason Holland:“粮农组织在最新一期的《世界渔业和水产养殖业状况》报告中认识到,在捕捞渔业中,通过为渔民提供更准确的天气预报和卫星定位,新产品或服务创新可以改变他们活动,使之更安全、更精确、更可预测。据该组织称,这些工具为水产养殖生产者也提供了类似的好处。这两个行业都可以从这些旨在收集和安全存储信息的新兴技术中受益,以帮助更好地遵守更严格的监管和可追溯性要求。"

Jason Holland:” In the latest edition of its “The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture” report, the FAO recognizes that in capture fisheries, new product or service innovations have the potential to change activities by providing fishers with more accurate weather forecasts and satellite positioning that can in turn make their operations safer, more precise, and more predictable. Such tools offer similar benefits to aquaculture producers, and that both sectors can benefit from those emerging technologies designed to gather and safely store information to help improve compliance with stricter regulatory and traceability requirements, according to the organization.”

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(3) Mohammad Arju:”孟加拉国、印度和缅甸已经商定了它们在孟加拉湾的边界,但鱼和渔民都不受专属经济区地图上的线的约束。为了获得更好的渔获,渔民们有意无意地越过边界。由于船多鱼少,冲突是常见的。在缺乏积极合作的情况下,渔民继续被其他国家逮捕,而过度捕捞则使鱼类数量减少。“ 

Mohammad Arju:" Bangladesh, India and Myanmar have agreed their borders in the Bay of Bengal, but neither fish nor fishers are bound by the lines on the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) map. In the hope of a better catch, fishers cross boundaries, knowingly or not. As more boats chase fewer fish, clashes are common. In the absence of active cooperation, fishers continue to be jailed in other countries while overfishing drives down fish populations."   

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(4) 经济学人集团|世界海洋倡议:"由可持续海洋经济高级别小组委托编写的一份新报告概述了四项具有最大潜力的投资,以确保海洋健康和财富。这些措施包括:保护和恢复红树林生境、扩大海上风电生产规模、国际航运业低碳化以及增加可持续来源的海洋蛋白质的生产。"

The Economist Group | World Ocean Initiative:" A new report commissioned by the High Level Panel for a Sustainable Ocean Economy outlines the four investments with the biggest potential to secure ocean health and wealth. The report focuses on four interventions: conserving and restoring mangrove habitats, scaling up offshore wind production, decarbonizing the international shipping sector, and increasing the production of sustainably sourced ocean-based proteins."

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(5) Harriet Harden-Davies等:“制定一项新的具有法律约束力的国家管辖范围以外海洋生物多样性养护和可持续利用国际文书(BBNJ协定)的工作已进入最后谈判阶段。我们认为,自然权利的观点可以加强现有的海洋管理规范,激励采取新的措施,提高BBNJ协定的有效性和公平性,并在国家管辖范围以外的地区中实现全球海洋管理。”

Harriet Harden-Davies et al.:" The development of a new international legally binding instrument for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ agreement) is in the final negotiation phase. We argue that a Rights of Nature perspective can reinforce existing ocean governance norms, inspire new measures to enhance the effectiveness and equitability of the BBNJ agreement and enable global ocean stewardship in areas beyond national jurisdiction."

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学术 Academics

(1) 【气候·海洋 北冰洋对来自亚北极海域异常对流的反应使北冰洋发生北移

[Climate·Ocean] Borealization of the Arctic Ocean in Response to Anomalous Advection From Sub-Arctic Seas

北冰洋近期变化的一个重要方面仍未得到充分记录,这与源自大西洋和太平洋的亚北极水体和生物群向极地盆地的异常平流有关,我们将这一过程称为北移。利用37年的观测档案(1981-2017年),我们展示了北冰洋区域对大西洋化(亚北极海域的水体异常进入北冰洋)和太平洋化(太平洋的亚北极水体异常涌入北冰洋)的反差极大的响应。基于模型对北极气候系统未来发展轨迹的评估表明,在全球变暖的情景下,北极区域的“北移”(向北缩小)将继续进行。本研究通过识别大气-冰-洋系统中北冰洋化起关键作用的新反馈,进一步加深了我们对北冰洋复杂的、有时并不直观的北冰洋对气候强迫的反应的理解。

阅读/Read


(2) 【气候·海洋 从过去的视角看当代的北极气候突变

[Climate·Ocean] Past perspectives on the present era of abrupt Arctic climate change

气候突变是许多气候记录的一个显著特征,特别是格陵兰冰芯中的变暖事件。这些突然和高幅度的事件与北大西洋和北欧海的海冰迅速退缩紧密结合在一起,观测证据表明,这些事件具有全球影响。在现今的北极地区,海冰流失也是持续变暖的关键。本报告利用观测和气候模型,将当代北极地区的变化与过去格陵兰岛突然变暖的背景联系起来。我们发现,与现代趋势相似或更高的升温速度只发生在过去的突发性冰川时期。我们认为,北极目前正在经历一场突然的气候变化事件,而气候模型低估了这种持续的变暖。

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(3) 【气候·海洋 暖年南极沿海环境中微观和中观浮游生物的演替问题

[Climate·Ocean] Micro- and mesozooplankton successions in an Antarctic coastal environment during a warm year

过去几十年来,在南极半岛西部探测到的大气温度快速上升,伴随着冰川的强烈退缩和融水产量的增加,以及海冰动态的变化。本研究的目的是分析南极沿海环境(波特湾)在一个温暖的年周期(2010年12月-2011年12月)中微观和中观浮游生物的演替情况。在冰川融化初期,大中型浮游动物(桡足类、超大型浮游动物如磷虾和海鞘)对叶绿素-a和微型浮游动物起到了自上而下的控制作用。在海冰冻结期间,杂食性中层浮游动物的丰度较高,这可能是由于在海冰下或海冰内存在可用的异养食物。最后,在海冰开始融化的春季中期,微浮游动物的数量增加,对应的是中小二叶虫和纤毛虫物种,它们可能是海冰生物群的一部分。如果冰继续退缩,海冰层的持续时间和厚度如气候模型所预测的那样发生波动,研究结果预测了未来南极沿海环境浮游动物演替的情况。

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(4) 【划区管理诀窍何在?剖析与海洋保护区和从斯科舍海内迁出的捕鱼相关的利益和成本

[Area-based Management] What’s the catch? Profiling the benefits and costs associated with marine protected areas and displaced fishing in the Scotia Sea

我们评估了两种海洋保护区(MPA)情景对南极磷虾渔业和斯科舍海以食磷虾为生的食肉动物的可能影响,主要针对的是禁渔区导致的捕捞转移问题。MPA情景预测了渔业总产量的增加,但同时存在在磷虾密度相对较低的区域捕鱼的风险,可能导致渔业暂停作业。结果表明,即使渔业只是被转移,在排除MPA以外的磷虾渔业的进一步空间管理的可能性的情况下,在斯科舍海设计良好的MPA可以保护依赖磷虾的捕食者。更广泛地来说,这些结果表明了划定捕鱼和捕食者生境、空间尺度以及MPA建设中成本效益的关键权衡的重要性。

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(5) 【气候·海洋 温度诱导的南极磷虾孵化失败和幼体畸形

[Climate·Ocean]Temperature–Induced Hatch Failure and Nauplii Malformation in Antarctic Krill

研究表明,南极磷虾孵化成功率在3.0℃以上明显下降。现场实验还表明,在温度升高时,畸形胚胎的比例大约增加了一倍,在5.0℃时达到50%。然而,在3.0℃或更低的温度下,温度并不是驱动胚胎孵化成功率大幅变化的主要因素。我们观察到的健康幼体的孵化成功率变化很大,而且往往很低,这说明雌性磷虾的繁殖潜力指标与随后生产的有活力的磷虾幼体关系不大,可能有助于解释产卵种群分布和幼体分布之间的空间差异。

阅读/Read


(6) 【海洋生态 营养链中的环节:建立不同海洋制度下原地海洋学、磷虾和蓝鲸分布之间的功能关系模型 

[Marine Ecology] Links in the trophic chain: Modeling functional relationships between in situ oceanography, krill, and blue whale distribution under different oceanographic

升级的回归树模型显示,通过磷虾指标预测蓝鲸分布(典型状况=36%与温暖状况=64%交叉验证偏差解释)比海洋学(典型状况=19%与温暖状况=31%交叉验证偏差解释)更好。然而,预测更多磷虾聚集(典型状况)和更高磷虾密度(温暖状况)的海洋学特征与预测每个状况中蓝鲸存在概率较高的特征紧密结合。因此,这项研究证实了猎物可得性的环境驱动因素可以作为蓝鲸分布的合适代用指标。考虑到不断变化的海洋条件可能会影响海洋捕食者的分布,这些研究结果强调,需要建立基于功能关系的模型,并在广泛的条件下进行校准,以便为有效的养护管理提供信息。

阅读/Read


其他资料 Other Intel

【生物多样性】 通向生物多样性缔约方会议第十五届会议及其后的变革之路:非洲集团与欧洲联盟在埃斯瓦蒂尼(斯威士兰)的对话

[Biodiversity] The road for change, towards COP15 and beyond: A dialogue in Eswatini (Swaziland) between the African Group and the European Union

报告/Report


【生物多样性】 《中国珊瑚礁状况报告2019》(提取码:Z52U)

[Biodiversity] State of China's Coral Reefs Report 2019 (Extract Code: Z52U)

报告/Report


【渔业管理】 全球金枪鱼联盟 | 金枪鱼2020年可追溯性声明环境可持续性工具书

[Fisheries Management] Global Tuna Alliance | Tuna 2020 Traceability Declaration Environmental Sustainability Toolkit

文件/File

【极地海洋】 播客: 为中国的下一代保护南大洋

[Polar Ocean] Podcast: Protecting the Southern Ocean for China’s next generation

文章/Article


活动 Events

>>预告 Announcements

2020年9月23日 网络研讨会 “循环资本”海洋基金:开创性的防止海洋塑料的1亿美元投资基金
2020.9.23 Webinar Circulate Capital Ocean Fund: A pioneering, $100M investment fund to prevent ocean plastic
详情/Detail


2020年9月24日 网络研讨会 海洋年代线上系列:共同设计 "海洋年代"所需的科学知识
2020.9.24 Webinar The Ocean Decade Virtual Series: Co-designing the Science we need for the Ocean Decade
详情/Detail


2020年9月25日 现场会议 2020“中国海洋经济论坛”
2020.9.25 Forum 2020 "China Ocean Economy Forum"
详情/Detail


2020年9月25日 网络研讨会 南亚和东南亚的生物多样性缔约方大会第十五届会议的雄心是什么?
2020.9.25 Webinar What is the ambition for biodiversity COP15 in South Asia and Southeast Asia?
详情/Detail


2020年9月30日 网络研讨会 从 "全产业链 "的角度重构可持续海产品的叙事方式
2020.9.30 Reframing the Sustainable Seafood Narrative by Shifting to a "Whole Chain" Perspective
详情/Detail


>>回顾 Reviews

2020年6月08日 联合国世界海洋日官方门户网站
2020.6.08 The Official United Nations World Oceans Day Portal
详情/Detail


2020年7月29日 海洋行动之友 | 海洋保护和保育:目标与努力
2020.7.29 Friends of Ocean Actions | Marine protection and conservation: goals and efforts
详情/Detail


2020年9月01日 生物多样性:优先产业的路径是什么?
2020.9.01 Biodiversity: What are the Pathways for Priority Sectors?
详情/Detail


2020年9月02日 与不可能的利益攸关方合作防止海洋废弃物的产生
2020.9.02 Working with unlikely stakeholders to prevent marine debris
详情/Detail


2020年9月03日 蓝色复苏和延迟的海洋 "超级 "年
2020.9.03 The blue recovery and the delayed ocean ‘super’ year
详情/Detail


2020年9月08日 人类与海洋星球的关系
2020.9.08 The Human Relationship with our Ocean Planet
注册观看/Register to review


>>其他

本简报两周更新一期,往期内容可以查看这里。 如果您在简报内容或形式上有任何意见或建议,欢迎发邮件至ocean@ghub.org告诉我们,也欢迎您将《蓝色脉搏》推荐给同事和朋友

我们正在跟踪新冠疫情导致的海洋相关国际会议安排的变动,最新的信息在这里


题图:Waves break along the Chukchi Sea coast on Alaska’s North Slope in an Aug. 2012 file photo. The Arctic Ocean stands to see higher waves as it becomes more like the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. (BOEM)