Issue 11 | Blue Pulse: Marine Conservation Bulletin

日期:

This time we focus on the recent oil spill event in Mauritius, as well as environmental impacts of commercial seabed mining activities.

导语

关键点1

一艘日本油轮在毛里求斯海域触礁,因船体出现破裂,原油大量泄漏,泄漏点附近就是原始的蓝湾海岸公园,是毛里求斯知名的海洋生物和珊瑚保护区之一。毛里求斯是一个小岛国,此次事故让这个国家的人民与环境同时受到了伤害,此事件再次以一种令人痛心的方式提醒我们人类与自然的内在联系。

Highlight 1:

A Japanese oil tanker  ran aground on a reef in Mauritius water. The hull was broken and the carried oil is spilling to the adjacent water. The site is close to the pristin Blue Bay marine park, a famous MPA that conserves marine lives and corals. It is a significant tragedy for the ocean and the people of Mauritius and surrounding areas. Both are damaged by the spill and this is a powerful, if terrible demonstration of the inter-reliance between the nature and the people.


关键点2

与海面上的溢油事故相比,商业化的海底采矿所造成的环境影响可能不会有让人心碎的图片,也不会直接作用于人类的经济与健康,但是由于深海生态及其与人类关系依然所知甚少,所以在海底开发上需要采用比较审慎的态度。本期学术部分汇集了近期对于不同的海底生态系统的研究进展供读者参考。

Highlight2:

Compared to the oil spill on the surface, environmental impacts caused by commercial deep sea mining might not have shocking images or direct impacts on human economy and health. But due to lack of understanding of the interlinks between the deep sea ecosystems and human, it is necessary to take a prudent approach when discussing the exploitation od the sea bed. The Academic section has included a few revcent research papers on the deep sea ecosystem for interested readers.


时讯

搁浅船只漏油事件致使毛里求斯环境危机  2020 Maxar Technologies | 制


(1) 7月25日,悬挂巴拿马国旗的日本散装货轮”若潮“号在毛里求斯东南海域触礁搁浅,发生燃油泄漏,对临近的海域和海滩造成污染。毛里求斯政府8月7日宣布“环境紧急状态”,并向法国政府求援,法国已从附近的法属留尼旺调派军舰与飞机支援。

On 25 July, the Japanese bulk carrier Wakatsumi, flying the Panamanian flag, ran aground off the south-east coast of Mauritius, spilling fuel and polluting adjacent waters and beaches. The government of Mauritius declared a "state of environmental emergency" on August 7, and asked for help from the French government, France has sent warships and aircraft from the nearby French Réunion to support.

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(2) 新泽西州普林斯顿大学物理海洋学家Maike Sonnewald领导的新研究概述了一种对海洋生态系统进行分类的新方法。她说,海洋可以细分为100个不同的生态省,这些生态省共同构成了12个主要的巨型省,其中动物和植物物种平衡相似。

New research led by Maike Sonnewald, a physical oceanographer at Princeton University in New Jersey, outlines a new way to classify marine ecosystems. She says that the ocean can be broken down into 100 different ecoprovinces, which together make up 12 main megaprovinces with similar balances of animal and plant species.

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(3) 世界自然保护联盟SSC/WCPA海洋哺乳动物保护区工作组8月5日宣布批准在南大洋延伸区域建立13个新的重要海洋哺乳动物区(IMMAs)。这些IMMAs是座头鲸、小须鲸、蓝鲸、南方露脊鲸和长须鲸等物种的栖息地,也是食蟹海豹、豹纹海豹、威德尔海豹、罗斯海豹、南方毛皮海豹和南方象海豹、新西兰海狮和虎鲸的栖息地。

The IUCN SSC/WCPA Marine Mammal Protected Areas Task Force (“the Task Force”) today announces the approval of thirteen new Important Marine Mammal Areas (IMMAs) in the Extended Southern Ocean Region. The new IMMAs in the Extended Southern Ocean Region feature habitats for species such as humpback, minke, blue, southern right and fin whales, as well as crabeater, leopard, Weddell, Ross, southern fur and southern elephant seals, New Zealand sea lions and killer whales.

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(4) 灰色地带和乏力的政策损害了亚洲活礁鱼贸易。印度尼西亚、菲律宾和马来西亚等东南亚国家对野生捕捞的珊瑚礁鱼的需求量很大,这可能会导致过度捕捞和鱼类种群枯竭。为了缓解野生鱼类种群的压力,各国开始采用养殖的方式,将野生捕捞的石斑鱼种养在围栏里,而这种做法远非可持续。政府试图通过规定尺寸限制和休渔期来监管贸易,但基本上没有成功。

Gray areas and weak policies mar Asian trade in live reef fish. High demand for wild-caught reef fish from Southeast Asian countries like Indonesia, the Philippines and Malaysia could be driving overfishing and depletion of fish stocks. To ease the strain on wild fish populations, countries started adopting fish-farming practices in which they raise wild-caught grouper species in pens, a practice that is far from sustainable. Government attempts to regulate the trade by imposing size limits and closed fishing seasons have largely fallen short.

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(5) 渥太华公布了一项价值4.69亿加元的“渔民福利和补助方案“计划细节,该计划旨在帮助加拿大的渔民应对COVID-19疫情带来的经济损失。计划向个体渔民提供收入资助,包括淡水渔民、近海许可证持有者、拥有社区商业捕鱼许可证的原住民捕鱼者、业主经营者和合股人。

Ottawa has unveiled details of a $469-million program "Fish Harvester Benefit and Grant Program" aimed at helping Canada's fish harvesters deal with the economic fallout from the COVID-19 pandemic. The Fish Harvester Benefit offers income support to self-employed commercial fish harvesters, including freshwater fishermen, inshore licence holders, Indigenous harvesters who have a communal commercial fishing licence, owner-operators and sharepersons.

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(6)澳大利亚北部发展合作研究中心(CRCNA)发布的一份新报告称,在未来十年内,澳大利亚北部水产养殖业的产值将增加五倍,超过13.4亿美元,鱼、虾和其他海产品的产量将超过目前的五倍。

Northern Australian aquaculture is set to increase its production five-fold to exceed $1.34 billion in value and produce more than five times its current volume of fish, prawns and other seafood products within the next decade—according to a new Cooperative Research Centre for Developing Northern Australia report published today.

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观点

在马耳他沿海的一个渔场捕获大西洋蓝鳍金枪鱼 robertharding/Alamy Stock Photo | 摄


(1) Jennifer E. Telesca :“近25年来,海洋管理委员会(MSC)一直将自己定位为渔业生态标签的黄金标准。获得MSC认证就意味着被认定为是野生捕捞海产品的最佳选择。但获得认证并不意味着真的达到了可持续发展的标准,如鱼的含汞量,或者渔船上是否尊重了人权等,都不在MSC的标准之内。而且MSC甚至考虑将蓝鳍金枪鱼,这种濒临灭绝、过度开发、管理不善、受盗捕的、受污染的、体型比以往任何时候都小的鱼类认证为海产品的最佳选择,令人费解。”

Jennifer E. Telesca:" For nearly 25 years, The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) has positioned itself as the fishing industry’s gold standard for ecolabeling. To be MSC certified is to be identified as the best choice in wild-caught seafood. But certified does not mean sustainable, such as whether a fish is high in mercury or sourced from fleets respecting human rights, are outside MSC’s criteria. And for the MSC to even consider certifying bluefin tuna, a fish that’s endangered, overexploited, mismanaged, pirated, polluted, and smaller than ever before as a best choice in seafood is baffling. "

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(2) Jeffrey C. Drazen等:“研究表明,海底采矿将在海底和水柱中产生沉积物羽流和噪音,可能对深中水生态系统服务以及生物多样性产生广泛的生态影响。研究认为,深海采矿对中水生态系统构成重大风险,并建议如何更全面地评估这些风险,使环境资源管理人员和整个社会能够决定是否以及如何进行深海采矿。”

Jeffrey C. Drazen et al.:" Research indicates that seafloor mining will generate sediment plumes and noise at the seabed and in the water column that may have extensive ecological effects in ecosystem services, as well as biodiversity, of deep midwaters. Here we argue that deep-sea mining poses significant risks to midwater ecosystems and suggest how these risks could be evaluated more comprehensively to enable environmental resource managers and society at large to decide whether and how deep-sea mining should proceed. "

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(3) Guillermo Ortuño Crespo等:“随着联合国就国家管辖范围以外生物多样性养护和可持续利用的新条约进行谈判,设计和实施适当规模的公海区域管理工具(ABMTs)对于确保这些空间保护措施在面对不断变化的海洋时最为有效和最能适应气候至关重要。我们确定了四个最重要的时间尺度--当前、年内、多年和多年代--以使公海ABMTs与相关的生态、海洋学和大气过程保持一致。”

Guillermo Ortuño Crespo et al.:"As the United Nations negotiates a new treaty on the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction, efforts to design and implement high seas ABMTs at appropriate scales are critical to ensure that these spatial protection measures are most effective and climate-ready in the face of changing oceans. Here we identify the four most important temporal scales – contemporary, intra-annual, multi-annual and multidecadal – for aligning high seas ABMTs to relevant ecological, oceanographic and atmospheric processes. "

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(4) Evan M. Howard等:“气候变暖预计将加剧加州洋流系统(CCS)的缺氧,威胁其多样化和多产的海洋生态系统。对于关键的CCS物种北鳀鱼来说,长期的生物地理分布和丰度年代波动都与有氧生境量高度一致。预计到2100年,海洋变暖和缺氧将使30-50%现有的鳀鱼分布区的生境减少到临界水平以下,包括南方CCS的有氧生境完全丧失,从而可能灭绝。有氧生境的丧失将因CCS分类群的特征而有很大差异,破坏整个区域的生态相互作用。”

Evan M. Howard et al.:"Climate warming is expected to intensify hypoxia in the California Current System (CCS), threatening its diverse and productive marine ecosystem. For a key CCS species, northern anchovy, the long-term biogeographic distribution and decadal fluctuations in abundance are both highly coherent with aerobic habitat volume. Ocean warming and oxygen loss by 2100 are projected to decrease habits below critical levels in 30 to 50% of anchovies’ present range, including complete loss of aerobic habitat—and thus likely extirpation—from the southern CCS. Aerobic habitat loss will vary widely across the traits of CCS taxa, disrupting ecological interactions throughout the region."

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(5) Jonathan Lenoir等:“在温暖和相对不受干扰的水域(如中太平洋盆地)或受人类高压的寒冷水域(如北海),海洋物种能密切跟踪等温线的变化。在陆地上,人类活动阻碍了陆生物种追踪等温线变化的能力,一些物种与等温线的变化方向相反。研究表明,陆地物种比海洋物种更落后于等温线的变化,这可能与陆地物种比海洋物种更宽的热安全边际和陆地生境比海洋生境更受限制的物理环境之间的相互作用有关。”

Jonathan Lenoir et al.:"Marine species closely track shifting isotherms in warm and relatively undisturbed waters (for example, the Central Pacific Basin) or in cold waters subject to high human pressures (for example, the North Sea). On land, human activities impede the capacity of terrestrial species to track isotherm shifts in latitude, with some species shifting in the opposite direction to isotherms. Our results suggest that terrestrial species are lagging behind shifting isotherms more than marine species, which is probably related to the interplay between the wider thermal safety margin of terrestrial versus marine species and the more constrained physical environment for dispersal in terrestrial versus marine habitats."

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(6)世界海洋倡议:“巴西‘蓝色亚马逊’概念中政治和经济方面的考虑越来越超过环境保护。巴西海军在海洋保护方面发挥着独特而重要的作用。‘蓝色亚马逊’的概念最早是由巴西海军在2004年提出的,‘以此来树立一种观念,即我们应该意识到海洋的重要性’。许多科学家热切地接受了这个词,因为它强调了巴西海洋的巨大和大部分未被开发的海洋多样性--巴西生产的95%的石油、80%的天然气和45%的鱼类也来自于海洋。但在总统贾伊尔·博尔索纳罗的领导下,科学家们担心政治和经济方面的考虑越来越超过环境保护。”

World Ocean Initiative: “ Political and economic considerations are increasingly outweighing environmental protection in 'the Blue Amazon'. Brazil’s navy plays a unique and important role in marine conservation. The concept of the 'Blue Amazon' was first developed by Brazil’s navy in 2004 'as a way to create a mindset that we should be conscious of the importance of the sea'. Many scientists have enthusiastically embraced the term as highlighting the vast and in large part unexplored marine diversity of Brazil’s seas—which also yield 95% of the petroleum, 80% of the natural gas and 45% of the fish produced by the country. But under president Jair Bolsonaro, scientists fear that political and economic considerations are increasingly outweighing environmental protection. "

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学术

(1) 【海洋生态】北极盆地的底栖生物靠什么生存?编制北冰洋深处的碳预算

[Marine Ecology] What Feeds the Benthos in the Arctic Basins? Assembling a Carbon Budget for the Deep Arctic Ocean

研究总结了过去30年北冰洋盆地底栖、上层和同层领域的自养和异养生物的数据,并整理出该地区的有机碳预算。在预算的基础上,研究了人们目前对初级和次级生产以及垂直碳通量的理解是否与目前对深海底栖生物碳需求的估计相平衡。起初,预算识别了初级生产的碳供应、生活在水层和底栖领域的生物对碳的需求与低垂直碳输出之间的不匹配。为了预算能匹配,我们建议需要量化和包括大型、快速下沉的冰藻聚集的偶发事件、死亡浮游动物的出口,以及大量的食物下降。这项工作强调需要更好地了解北极深海盆地碳供需的数量、表型和区域性,这将使我们能够评估生态系统在未来可能发生的变化。

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(2) 【海洋生态】代谢利基和生物多样性:深海底栖动物的测试案例

[Marine Ecology] Metabolic Niches and Biodiversity: A Test Case in the Deep Sea Benthos

深海海底的自然特点是化学能的供应量极低,特别容易受到表层水碳通量变化的影响。研究发现,具有较高能量支出的底栖无脊椎动物,以及与高能量需求相关的生态环境,都位于具有较高化学能量可用性的区域。此外研究还发现,深海底栖物种的分布范围和位置是由化学能源供应的地理模式决定的。研究结果表明,物种可能适应于特定的能源制度,新陈代谢利基可能将从个体到生态系统的尺度以及对生物地理学和生物多样性模式的适应联系起来。

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(3) 【气候.海洋】水团对北大西洋深海底栖生态系统生物多样性和生物地理学的影响

[Marine Ecology] Influence of Water Masses on the Biodiversity and Biogeography of Deep-Sea Benthic Ecosystems in the North Atlantic

本研究回顾了水团的特性(温度、盐度、食物供应、碳酸盐化学和氧气)对深海底栖动物的影响(从物种到群落水平),并在未来的气候变化情景中讨论。气候变暖、海洋酸度增加,将使适合生态系统建设者的栖息地急剧减少,造成严重后果,其中包括种群密度下降,甚至影响其长期生存,生物多样性丧失,生物地理分布减少,可能影响大尺度的连通性。碳通量的减少会加剧这些影响,特别是在食物供应已经有限的地区。底栖生物量和生物多样性的下降将减少生态系统服务,如生境提供、营养循环等。

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(4) 【海洋生态】北极和亚北极挪威水域底栖生物群落的分类和测绘 

[Marine Ecology] Classification and Mapping of Benthic Biotopes in Arctic and Sub-Arctic Norwegian Waters

深海底栖栖息地的分类一直受制于在局部范围内作用的大尺度环境因素的信息。环境变化并不均匀,群落组成的变化会反映这一点。因此,较大区域的生物群落图谱绘制在代表多种空间尺度的方面面临这挑战。本研究证明了主导性底物并不总是反映在群落组成中,因为即使硬底物的贡献率很低,无脊椎生物也可能作为特征类群出现。海洋环境以及可能的生物因素,如食物的可得性和幼虫的运输,对控制上层底栖动物的物种组成非常重要。更好地了解这些因素可进一步改进生物群落分布模型。

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(5) 【气候.海洋】未来海平面上升促使岩石潮间带生境丧失和底栖生物群落变化

[Marine Ecology] Future sea-level rise drives rocky intertidal habitat loss and benthic community change

海平面上升对存在于陆海交界处的生态系统的影响可能最大,因为在那里,海平面的微小变化可能导致生境可用性的急剧变化。潮间带岩石生态系统具有一些特征,使其极易受到海平面变化的影响。结果表明,海平面上升将减少研究地点的潮间带岩石生境总面积,导致主要底栖空间占用者的面积整体减少,无脊椎动物丰度减少。随着大规模的环境变化,如海平面上升在下个世纪加速,将需要更广泛的空间明确的生态相关规模的监测,以可视化和量化其对生物系统的影响。

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(6) 【海洋生态】绘制不列颠哥伦比亚省沿海生态系统服务的累积影响图

[Marine Ecology] Mapping cumulative impacts to coastal ecosystem services in British Columbia

本研究绘制了不列颠哥伦比亚省沿海8种不同生态系统服务的累积影响图,以量化人类活动对每种服务的风险。通过绘制累积影响图,可以更好地管理生态系统,并理解人类作为变化的推动者和服务的受益者与环境的双重关系。研究证明了在评估影响时考虑服务和价值层面的重要性,认为考虑服务和价值维度不仅对更充分地理解影响很重要,而且对规划有效的管理对策也很重要。最后,指出了未来方法论需要完善的领域,并鼓励在累积影响绘图方面进行更多创新。

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(7) 【渔业管理】“小而美,大得证”:比较海洋管理委员会(MSC)在其宣传材料中介绍的渔业和获得MSC认证的渔业

[Fisheries Management] Small is beautiful, but large is certified: A comparison between fisheries the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) features in its promotional materials and MSC-certified fisheries

海洋管理委员会(MSC)制定了可持续渔业评估和生态认证的标准。虽然MSC越来越被决策者认可为渔业成功的指标,但它也因标准薄弱和第三方认证者过于宽松而受到批评。这种标准的声誉和实际执行之间的差距可能是MSC如何营销和推广其品牌的结果。研究显示,尽管2009-2017年只有40%的MSC认证渔业和17%的总渔获量是由被动渔具捕捞的,但是涉及小型船只和被动渔具的渔业在宣传材料中的比例过高,64%的宣传照片是被动渔具。同样,尽管2009年至2017年仅有20%的MSC认证渔业和7%的MSC认证渔获量使用小型渔船,但是49%的照片以小型渔船为主题。尽管认证的渔获量绝大多数来自工业化渔业,但照片中小规模渔业的照片比例过高。

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其他资料

【渔业管理】养殖鱼类福利实践:鲑鱼养殖作为案例研究

鱼类福利指标及其对鲑鱼养殖最佳管理实践的用途概述

[Fisheries Management] Farmed fish welfare practices: salmon farming as a case study.

Overview on fish welfare indicators and their use for best management practices for salmon farming.

文件/File


【划区管理】SOOS 西南极半岛和斯科舍弧形地带:关于未来优先事项的建议和想法

[Area-based Management] SOOS West Antarctic Peninsula and Scotia Arc: Suggestions and Ideas for future priorities

文章/Articles

【蓝色经济】2030可持续海洋经济:机遇与挑战

[Blue Economy] A sustainable ocean economy in 2030: Opportunities and challenges

报告/Report


活动

>>预告

2020年8月26日 科学、创新及蓝色复苏

2020.8.26 Science, innovation and the blue recovery

详情/Detail


2020年9月3日 蓝色复苏和推迟的海洋超级年

2020.9.03 The blue recovery and the delayed ocean ‘super’ year 

详情/Detail


>>回顾

2020年7月16日 “围炉夜话”

规范太阳辐射改造研究:从海洋云层亮化和大堡礁得到的启示

2020.7.16 CAMPFIRE CHAT

Governing Solar Radiation Modification Research: Insights from Marine Cloud Brightening and the Great Barrier Reef

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2020年7月23日 确保亚太地区稳健的“蓝色”复苏

2020.7.23 Ensuring a robust “blue” recovery in Asia and the Pacific

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>>其他

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我们正在跟踪新冠疫情导致的海洋相关国际会议安排的变动,最新的信息在这里


*题图:crabeater seal, King George Island, Southe Shetlands, Ryan Reisinger | 摄