第十期 | 蓝色脉搏·海洋生命共同体速递

日期:

本期关注气候变化及其相关的海洋变化对渔业资源的作用,聚焦近期接连爆出的涉及中国渔船非法捕捞讯息。

导语

关键点1:

气候变化及其相关的海洋变化对渔业资源的作用关系正得到越来越多的关注。《预防中北冰洋不管制公海渔业协定》为了开展更多的科学研究以支持未来的开发,搁置了中北冰洋公海的商业捕捞,堪称应用风险预防原则的典范。本期学术中收录了两篇气候变化对北冰洋的初级生产力的影响的论文,我们会继续关注相关的产出。另外学术内容中还收录了一篇从国家经济的视角来分析气候变化对渔业国家的影响的论文。

Highlight1:

Impacts of ocean changes associated with climate change on fisheries is gaining more attention. The 2018 Agreement to Prevent Unregulated High Seas Fisheries in the Central Arctic Ocean puts scientific research ahead of commercial fishing, which sets a good example of applying the precautionary principle. In the Academic section of this issue, there are two papers about the impact of climate change on the Arctic Ocean’s primary production. And we will keep following the development of this issue. There is also a paper analyzing the impact of climate change on a fishing nation from the perspective of economics.  


关键点2:

最近接连爆出数条涉及中国渔船非法捕捞的信息。目前只有在北朝鲜海域的捕捞有比较可靠的证据支持,相关论文收录在本期学术中。这些消息反映出,随着技术的发展和人们对海洋的关注,海上活动的透明度正在增加,这对国家渔船的管理是挑战也是机遇。本期中除了学术栏目中关于北朝鲜海域中国渔业活动调查的论文,在时讯中也可以看到非法捕鱼的老大难俄罗斯也在通过积极改革渔业管理体系来回应新形势的挑战。目前国际形势比较复杂,增加透明度,就事论事加强海洋活动规制和生态保护方面的合作也许是促进合作与互信的机遇。

Highlight2:

Recently there have been a few news about illegal fishing activities associated with Chinese fishing vessels. The most solid case is illegal fishing in North Korean water. A paper on this case can be found in the Academic section. Those news reflect the increase of transparency of activities on the ocean due to the advance of technology and the rise of awareness. This presents a challenge and an opportunity for national fishery authorities. In the News section, you can see Russia, a country famous for lack of transparency is actively reforming its fishery management scheme to respond to this challenge. In the context of global geopolitical complex, enhancing transparency, regulation, and collaboration in conservation could be opportunities for promoting cooperation and mutual trust. 


时讯

图片
渔业补贴 UN M. Guthrle | 摄

(1) 世贸组织成员商定2020年工作方案以推进渔业补贴谈判。在2020年7月21日举行的渔业补贴谈判规则谈判小组会议上,世贸组织各代表团团长同意将主席的综合案文草案作为下一阶段渔业补贴工作的起点。谈判小组将从9月开始继续进行谈判并将在9月至11月期间举行四组会议。

WTO members agree on 2020 work programme to advance fisheries subsidies negotiations. At the 21 July 2020 meeting of the Negotiating Group on Rules concerning the fisheries subsidies negotiations, heads of WTO delegations agreed to use the Chair’s draft consolidated text as the starting point for the next phase of work on fisheries subsidies. The Negotiating Group will be in continuous negotiating mode, beginning in September, and will hold four clusters of meetings between September and November.

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(2) 欧盟委员会将增加欧盟年捕鱼配额协商过程的透明度。未来关于委员会完善总允许捕捞限额及配额提案的文件的所有要素都将公开。决策过程关系到鱼类种群和海洋环境环境可持续性、沿海社区的经济可持续性,因此决策需要以透明公开的方式进行。

The European Commission will increase transparency of the negotiation process for E.U.’s annual fishing opportunities. In the future, all elements of the commission’s documents complementing proposals on total allowable catches (TACs) and quotas will be made public. When allocation of fishing opportunities is decided, a lot is at stake including environmental sustainability of fish stocks and marine environment, as well as economic sustainability of coastal communities. That’s why it‘s important that such decisions are taken in a transparent way.

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(3) 新冠疫情之下,巴西非法渔业现象肆虐。自2020年3月底巴西联邦政府环境部门大部分官员开始远程办公,来自该国不同地区的个体渔民报告说,非法活动不断增加,工业渔船正在对海岸的保护区进行扫荡。

In COVID’s shadow, illegal fishing flourishes. Since the end of March, when most of the federal government’s environmental agency staff started working from home, artisanal fishermen from different parts of the country have been reporting increasing illegal activity. Industrial fishing vessels, they say, are scouring protected areas of the coast.    

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(4) 首次对全球1300个已开发的海洋种群的长期渔业生物量趋势评估显示,海洋生态区、气候带和海洋盆地中已开发鱼类种群的渔业生物量趋势在全球范围内的海洋及气候带急剧下降。全球海岸带和大陆架水域存在系统性的、广泛的过度捕捞现象。

The first global long-term fishery biomass trends evaluation of 1300 exploited marine populations shows that, fishery biomass of exploited fish populations in marine ecoregions, climatic zones and ocean basins are in sharp decline across oceans and climate zones around the world. Systemic wide-spread overfishing exists in the world’s coastal and continental shelf water.

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(5) 俄罗斯通过改革监管系统与非法、不报告和不管制的渔业抗争。电子捕捞日志作为改革后的渔业监测系统的关键部分已于2020年7月1日投入运行。该系统一旦全面运作,将大大加强国家对国家渔获物及其实际价值的监督。

Russia is to combat IUU fishing with renewed monitoring system. Digital Catch Journal, a critical part of Russia’s renewed fishery industry monitoring system, has been put into operation as of 1 July 2020. The system, when in full operation, will significantly increase state oversight of the national catch and its real value. 

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(6) 美国已成为第16个加入 “全球幽灵渔具倡议”(GGGI)的国家,该倡议是一个致力于解决全球幽灵渔具问题的多方利益相关者联盟。根据GGGI引用的最新研究,幽灵渔具占海洋中所有漂浮大型塑料重量的46-70%。

The United States has become the 16th country to join the Global Ghost Gear Initiative (GGGI), a multi-stakeholder consortium dedicated to tackling the problem of ghost fishing gear around the world. Ghost gear makes up 46-70 percent of all floating macroplastics in the ocean by weight, according to recent studies referenced by GGGI.

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观点

图片
向可持续海洋治理过渡的要素 Tanya Brodie Rudolph | 制

向可持续海洋治理过渡的要素 Tanya Brodie Rudolph | 制

(1) Tanya Brodie Rudolph et al.:“由于多种需求和压力威胁着海洋,因此我们需要向可持续海洋治理转型,以维系海洋对人类的贡献。我们展示了当前的经济和社会系统可以如何适应现有的压力并向海洋的良好管理转型,这需要通过在经济部门和利益攸关方社区内部和之间纳入创新。这些新颖的方法支持了一种新兴但目的明确的转变,指出了一条通往人类与海洋之间建立繁荣活跃关系的明确道路。”

Tanya Brodie Rudolph et al.:” As multiple demands and stressors threaten the ocean, a transition to sustainable ocean governance is required to maintain contributions of the ocean to people. We demonstrate how current economic and social systems can adapt to existing pressures and shift towards ocean stewardship through incorporation of innovations within and across economic sectors and stakeholder communities. These novel approaches support an emergent but purposeful transition and suggest a clear path to a thriving and vibrant relationship between humans and the ocean.”

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(2) Catherine Early:“世界经济论坛发布两份重要报告评估了加强自然保护及生态恢复可以带来的经济效益和商业价值,倡导有利于生态的商业模式。报告认为,全球有44万亿美元的经济价值创造活动(占全球GDP的一半以上)因为大自然及其提供的服务面临崩溃而处于潜在的风险之中。这意味着这些行业若现在采取行动积极变革,将获得最大的收益。”

Catherine Early:”World Economic Forum has published two major reports, describing the vast economic benefits of protecting and restoring the living wolrd, advocating for that nature and business can boost each other. The first report concluded that business depends on nature and its services to the extent that $44 trillion of economic value generation – over half the world’s GDP – is potentially at risk. This means that they have the most to gaine by embracing change now.”

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(3) 皮尤慈善信托基金会:“皮尤慈善信托基金会向联合国海洋事务和海洋法司提交了一封信,支持一项全局性的渔业管理战略。该信呼吁世界各国领导人采用基于生态系统的渔业管理方法,这种方法不仅考虑到何时、何地和单物种的捕捞量,还考虑到更广泛的生态系统,包括生境、食物网和影响渔业的其他海洋动态。这种方法将有助于保护生境,保持食物网的平衡,反映最佳科学,并在鱼类数量减少和全球海产品需求增加的情况下促进可持续渔业。”

The Pew Charitable Trusts:” The Pew Charitable Trusts submitted a letter supporting a big-picture fisheries management strategy to the United Nations Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea. The letter encourages world leaders to adopt ecosystem-based fisheries management, a method that looks beyond when, where and how much a single species can be fished to consider the broader ecosystem, including habitat, food webs, and other marine dynamics that affect fisheries. This approach would help protect habitats, keep food webs balanced, reflect the best science, and promote sustainable fishing in the face of declining fish populations and growing global demand for seafood.”

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(4) David Levin:“全球海洋及我们利用它的方式将会在未来几十年发生剧变。由于气候变暖,一些鱼类的数量会减少,而另一些鱼类的数量可能会增加,这可能意味着物种的种类会发生变化。由于人口增加和气候变化,陆地资源捉襟见肘,可持续水产养殖可能是未来的粮食安全保障。渔业将需要被纳入水产养殖系统,以满足我们的需求。”

David Levin:”Our global ocean and the way we use it will change dramatically over the next few decades. Some fish populations shrink due to warming while others may expand—which might mean the variety of species could change. As land-based resources are stretched thin due to increased population and changing climate, sustainable aquaculture may be the food security for the future. Fisheries will need to be integrated into aquaculture systems to meet our needs.”

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(5) Rachel I. Leihy et al.:“人类对南极大陆的影响是广泛的,但其野生生境范围没有量化,其生物多样性保护未知。研究表明,该大陆99.6%的面积仍可视为野生生境,但这一区域捕捉到的生物多样性特征很少。不受人类干扰的原始地区,覆盖的面积要小得多(不到南极洲的32%),并且随着人类活动的升级而不断减少。迫切需要扩大南极洲的特别保护区网络,既能扭转这一趋势,又能保证南极洲的生物多样性。”

Rachel I. Leihy et al.:”Human impacts on the Antarctic continent are widespread, but the extent of its wilderness remains unquantified and the importance thereof for biodiversity conservation is unknown. We show that 99.6% of the continent’s area can still be considered wilderness, but this area captures few biodiversity features. Pristine areas, free from human interference, cover a much smaller area (less than 32% of Antarctica) and are declining as human activity escalates. Urgent expansion of Antarctica’s network of specially protected areas can both reverse this trend and secure the continent’s biodiversity.”

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(6) Reagan Haynes:“渔业管理挑战升级,海洋变暖促使鱼类种群迁徙,但渔业管理系统的设计并不是与时俱进的。联邦的渔业管理面临复杂情况,不同地区不仅要争夺对不断减少的物种的控制权,而且海洋生态系统的复杂性使得获得完整和准确的数据具有挑战性。”

Reagan Haynes:” Fish-management challenges evolve. Warming oceans have fish species moving, but management systems aren’t designed to keep up with the changes. Federal management of fisheries is complicated. Not only do different regions fight for control of dwindling species, but the complexity of the ocean ecosystem makes obtaining complete and accurate data challenging.”

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学术

(1) 【气候·海洋】气候变化影响北极海洋生态系统

[Climate · Ocean] Climate change tweaks Arctic marine ecosystems

冰层减少会加强阳光对相对暗色的北冰洋(AO)的照射,从而促进微藻生物量的积累和海洋生态系统的生产力。这一看似合理的论断,却引起了热烈的争论,争论的焦点是气候变化压力下北极海洋生态系统的功能和命运。第二种模式认为藻类充分利用更多的光照需要额外的氮输入,而在AO的大部分地区,氮的输入量长期偏低。本研究证实了后一种观点,AO表面最近观察到的生物量累积,很可能是由于一些补充了关键的氮元素流体力学过程所驱动的。

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(2) 【海洋·生态】浮游植物浓度的变化推动了北冰洋初级生产力的增加

[Ocean · Ecology] Changes in phytoplankton concentration now drive increased Arctic Ocean primary production

从历史上看,北冰洋的海冰损失,由于开放水域面积更大而使得浮游植物生长季节更长,反而促进了浮游植物初级生产的增加。然而关于如果海冰进一步减少,初级产量是否会继续上升的争论仍然存在。研究表明虽然初级生产力增加的原因是1998年至2008年大范围的海冰损失,但随后初级产量的增加主要是由浮游植物生物量的增加所驱动的,这可能是由新的营养物质的涌入所维持的。这表明未来的北冰洋可以支持更高的营养级生产和额外的碳输出。

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(3) 【气候·海洋】冬季快速变暖可能破坏沿海海洋鱼类群落结构

[Climate · Ocean] Rapid winter warming could disrupt coastal marine fish community structure

海洋生态系统正受到越来越严重的水温上升的威胁。对于世界各地的生态系统来说,冬季变暖的速度比夏季变暖的速度更快。研究表明,冬季变暖可能会影响地中海的沿海鱼类群落组成。物种间的关联决定着群落的形成方式,冬季变暖对这些关联的影响平均是夏季变暖的四倍。因此,纳入季节性差异对于制定有效的沿海渔业和海洋生态系统管理至关重要。

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(4) 【气候·渔业】气候变化对菲律宾海洋捕捞渔业的预计经济影响

[Climate · Fisheries] Projected Economic Impact of Climate Change on Marine Capture Fisheries in the Philippines

菲律宾的国家经济极易受到气候变化对其渔业的影响。本研究在高低两种未来温室气体排放情景下,以国内生产总值和各地收入分配为指标,评估了气候变化对菲律宾海洋捕捞渔业及其国民经济的影响。结果表明,在气候发生更极端变化的地方,渔业和经济变量都将出现负面变化。

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(5)【气候·海洋】海洋酸化与人类健康

[Climate · Ocean] Ocean Acidification and Human Health

虽然海洋酸化最初只被认为是对海洋领域的威胁,但研究认为它也是一个新兴的人类健康问题。研究从营养不良和中毒、呼吸系统问题、心理健康影响、医疗资源的开发等方面探讨海洋酸化如何在数量和质量上影响关系到人类健康和福祉的关键资源。研究探讨了可以实施的缓解和适应管理战略,以加强酸化中的海洋继续为人类健康服务的能力。研究强调这些行动的成本将取决于社会经济背景;具体而言,社会经济弱势群体的成本可能会更高,这加剧了目前环境和人类健康挑战的不公平分配。

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(6) 【渔业管理】阐述出现在朝鲜的黑暗渔船队

[Fisheries Management] Illuminating dark fishing fleets in North Korea

非法、不报告和不管制的渔业捕捞活动威胁到渔业资源的可持续性和公平。管制这类活动的一个主要挑战是,大多数渔船不公布其位置,在公共监测系统中处于 “黑暗 “状态。结合四种卫星技术,研究发现在朝鲜、日本和俄罗斯之间的海域,黑暗船队的非法捕捞活动十分普遍。研究发现2017年有超过900艘中国籍船只、2018年有超过700艘船只在朝鲜海域非法捕捞,捕捞的鱼类种群数量估计接近日本和韩国的总和。研究还发现约有3000艘小型朝鲜船只在俄罗斯水域捕捞,其中大部分是非法的。

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(7) 【渔业管理】麻醉品-渔业:全球渔业与毒品走私

[Fisheries Management] Narco‐Fish: Global fisheries and drug trafficking

2010年至2017年期间进行的船只拦截记录表明,全球毒品贸易越来越依赖渔船,以渔业为基础的贩运正在增长。研究表明,虽然毒品总流量在随时间增加,但每艘船的毒品运输规模越来越小,而禁毒执法强化了这一效应,这表明贩毒网络适应缉毒工作而利用较小的船只来降低被查获的风险。在鱼类种群减少或严格的海洋养护方面竞争日益激烈的情况下,小规模渔民有可能转向毒品贸易而以之作为经济上的减贫手段。同时,从毒品贸易流入渔业的非法资本可能会推动渔业的过度资本化和不可持续的资源利用,最终损害依赖资源的沿海社区和海洋生态系统。

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其它资料

【海洋宏观】世界海洋电台播客 | 目的性深入探索

[Ocean General] World Ocean Radio podcast | Diving with a Purpose

音频/Audio


【渔业管理】欧盟20年来的过度捕捞活动证实绿色新政需要海洋议题进程上的雄心壮志

[Fisheries Management] 20 Years of EU Overfishing Proves Need for Blue Ambition in Green Deal

文件/File


活动

>>预告

2020年8月17日 海洋空间规划研讨会:平衡社会、经济、文化和生态目标

2020.08.17 Marine Spatial Planning Workshop: Balancing social, economic, cultural and ecological objectives

详情/Detail


2020年8月21日 美国偶像:了解缅因州龙虾产业

2020.08.21 An American Icon: Understanding the Maine Lobster Industry

详情/Detail


2020年9月9日 海产2030线上可持续发展论坛:协调行业和政府的可持续发展努力

2020.09.09 Seafood2030 Virtual Sustainability Forum

Aligning Industry and Government Sustainability Efforts

详情/Detail


2020年10月1日 气候变化对海洋空间规划的影响:途径与方法

2020.10.01 The effects of climate change in marine spatial planning: pathways and solutions

详情/Detail


2020年10月2日 海洋清洁联盟:复杂塑料问题的全球合作解决方案

2020.10.02 The Clean Currents Coalition: A global collaborative solution to the complex plastics problem

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>>回顾

2020年7月22日 “一个地球”基金会直播研讨会:海洋经济可以带给企业什么机遇?海洋可持续性对于商业的价值

2020.07.22 One Ocean Foundation live Webinar

Which opportunities can the Ocean Economy offer to companies?

The Value of Ocean Sustainability for business

详情/Detail


2020年7月22日 “围炉夜话”:规范太阳辐射改造研究-从海洋云层亮化和大堡礁得到的启示

2020.07.22 Campfire Chat: Governing Solar Radiation Modification Research: Insights from Marine Cloud Brightening and the Great Barrier Reef

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2020年7月22日 冉冉升起的蓝色财富:为海洋保护的可持续海洋投融资

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2020.07.22 The Rising Blue Dollar: Sustainable Ocean Financing for Marine Protection

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详情/Detail


2020年7月22-23日 加强保护区管理有效性

2020.07.22-23 Strengthening Protected Area Management Effectiveness

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2020年7月27日 英联邦“蓝色宪章”研讨会:开启红树林生态系统财富

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2020.07.27 Commonwealth Blue Charter webinar: Unlocking the wealth of mangrove ecosystems 

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详情/Detail


>>其他

本简报两周更新一期,往期内容可以查看这里。 如果您在简报内容或形式上有任何意见或建议,欢迎发邮件至ocean@ghub.org告诉我们,也欢迎您将《蓝色脉搏》推荐给同事和朋友

我们正在跟踪新冠疫情导致的海洋相关国际会议安排的变动,最新的信息在这里


*题图:Speaking anonymously, Brazilian environmental enforcement agents say their work has been curtailed by chronic staffing shortages—a situation made worse by COVID-19. Photo by Octavio Compos Salles/Alamy Stock Photo | 制。