第九期 | 蓝色脉搏·海洋生命共同体速递

日期:

本期聚焦了中国即将迎来的“第十四个五年计划”与海洋相关的讨论,聚焦了后2020全球生物多样性框架最新进程,并继续讨论海洋保护区相关内容。

导语

关键点1

“十四五”临近,和海洋相关的十四五的讨论也逐渐展开。在海洋生态文明的建设上,中国能否从跟随者转变为引领者,复制在应对气候变化上“from zero to hero”的转身,“十四五”将是关键的时期,而中国的十四五,也关系着全球海洋的而健康。本期的观点部分收录了一些专家的思考。

Highlight 1:

As the 14th Five-Year Plan is approaching, the discussion on the ocean-related actions in the 14th Five-Year Plan is also getting underway. In the construction of marine ecological civilization, whether China replicate its “from zero to hero” turn in addressing climate change, change from a follower to a leader, the 14th Five-Year Plan will be critical. China’s 14th Five-Year Plan matters to health of the global ocean. This issue’s opinion section contains a number of expert reflections.


关键点2

CBD缔约方大会因疫情推迟,反而给后2020全球生物多样性框架留出了更多的讨论时间。其中海洋保护的目标受到了广泛的关注。本期的观点部分也汇集了讨论最新的进展。

Highlight 2:

The CBD-COP’s delay due to the pandemic is allowing more time for discussion of the post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework. In particular, the goal of marine conservation has received a lot of attention. This issue’s opinion section also brings together the latest developments in that discussion.


关键点3

后2020的海洋保护需要“质”与“量”并重。本期的学术部分继续关注海洋保护区的效果和海洋保护区规划中对气候风险的考虑,希望对保护区的“质”的讨论有所贡献。

Highlight 3:

Post-2020 marine conservation needs progress in both quality and quantity. The academic section of this issue continues to discuss the effects of marine protected areas and the consideration of climate risks in marine protected area planning. We hope these papers could contribute to the discussion on the quality of marine protected areas.

Translated with www.DeepL.com/Translator (free version)


时讯

图片
美国国家海洋与大气局渔业部计划重启海上渔业监控项目 SeafoodSource | 制

(1)美国国家海洋和大气局渔业部与东北渔业科学中心渔业采样分部正预备于7月1日重启“东北海上观察员项目”。该科学中心正在筹备安全重启海上渔业管控要求,推进渔业监管运营重启综合计划,其中包括“遵循2020渔业年度日程和覆盖目标”。

NOAA Fisheries and the Northeast Fisheries Science Center’s (NEFSC) Fisheries Sampling Branch is preparing for a 1 July restart of the Northeast Observer Program. The center is preparing methods to safely resume observation requirements, developing a comprehensive plan to resume operations of fisheries monitoring including “following the sea day schedule and coverage targets laid out for the 2020 fishing year”.

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(2)海洋能源管理局(BOEM)和其他机构向四个机构拨款110万美元,用于支持对美国东北部海上风能发展至关重要的区域渔业研究。纽约海上风能产业的成功依赖于与扇贝渔业的合作。

A $1.1 million grant was awarded to four institutions by Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) and others to support regional fisheries studies that are important for the development of offshore wind in the Northeastern U.S. Success of New York offshore wind industry depends on collaboration with scallop fishery.

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(3) 许多保护海上风电场的人工鱼礁含塑料。“加速鱼礁创建-海洋”公司的鱼礁方块由采石工业副产品再生鱼骨和沙砾制成。它为利于海洋动植物自由生存而设计,目的是保护重要的海上设施免遭风暴侵扰和侵蚀,同时也对海洋生物多样性友好。

 Many artificial reefs protecting offshore wind farms contain plastics.  ARC Marine’s reef cubes are made from recycled aggregate and sand that is a byproduct of the quarrying industry. It is designed to allow marine flora and fauna to live through or establish easily. The aim is for these alternative reefs to protect vital offshore installations from storms and erosion while also encouraging marine biodiversity.

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(4) 海洋科学家们一直致力于创建一个全球网络来了解和测量海洋生物的变化。该系统将收集海洋、气候和人类活动的数据,以便更好地为可持续的海洋管理实践提供信息。

Ocean scientists have been busy creating a global network to understand and measure changes in ocean life.  The system will aggregate data from the oceans, climate and human activity to better inform sustainable marine management practices.

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(5) 中国渔船船长宋传云(音)本周被廖内群岛警方以袭击和贩卖人口的罪名拘留,因虐待劳工面临印尼起诉。中国远洋渔船对外国劳工的需要正成为公众关注的焦点。

Chinese trawler captain Song Chuanyun was taken into custody by Riau Islands Provincial Police this week on charges of assault and human trafficking, facing Indonesian prosecution over labor abuses. China’s need for foreign labor to man its distant water fleet has come into sharp focus.

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观点

图片
云南的恐龙河自然保护区是极度濒危的绿孔雀的最后栖息地 Greenpeace Wei Li | 摄

(1) 凯瑟琳·厄尔利:“《生物多样性公约》最新目标草案公布,增加陆地和海洋保护区到至少30%的目标仍然保留是积极的,而实现保护区域面积、连通性和完整性净增长的表述被移除则令人遗憾。观察人士认为昆明大会就保护目标而言可以走得更远。”

Catherine Early:” Updated goals and targets have been published by the Convention on Biological Diversity. It’s really positive to see a goal to increase protected areas on land and sea from the Aichi target of 17% to at least 30% remaining in the text. But a reference to achieving a net increase in area, connectivity and integrity has been removed is a disappointment. Campaigners are concerned they do not go far enough.”

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(2) 玛德琳·Serkissian:“非营利组织和许多不同学科的海洋科学家联合起草了一封公开信,敦促世界各地的决策者保护我们的海洋。我们呼吁大家支持全球呼声,保护至少30%的海洋,保持‘海洋保护区’这个术语的完整性。弱化这一标准不会使我们达到保护全球海洋健康的目标,而这对全世界人民都至关重要。”

Madeleine Serkissian:” A coalition of non-profit organizations and marine scientists of many different disciplines have drafted a letter to urge decision makers the world over to safeguard our ocean. We call on you to support a global call to protect and conserve at least 30% of the ocean and to preserve the integrity of the term “marine protected area”. Weakening this standard will not get us to our goal of protecting global ocean health, which is vital to all the people of this world.”

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(3) 张灿等:“中国‘十四五’海洋生态环境保护工作,有望实现规章制度日益健全;逐步提升治理能力,基本摸清海洋生态环境底数;整合提升科技能力,深入参与全球海洋生态环境治理,逐步实现从跟随到引领的转变。”

Zhang Can et al:” China’s 14th five-year plan for marine protection is expected to realize increasingly sound rules and regulations. We will improve our governance capacity and get a complete understanding of the marine ecological environment. We will holistically enhance our scientific and technological capabilities, taking an active part in global marine ecological environment governance, and gradually transform from a follower to a leader.”

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(4) 姚瑞华等:“中国海洋生态环境保护‘十四五’战略路线图分别就2025年、2035年和2050年时间节点,设定了海洋生态环境保护的总体目标和污染防治、生态修复、风险防范、能力建设、国际合作目标。”

Yao Ruihua et al:” The 14th five-year strategic roadmap of China for marine ecological and environmental protection sets the overall goals for marine ecological and environmental protection and the goals for pollution prevention and control, ecological restoration, risk prevention, capacity building and international cooperation respectively for 2025, 2035 and 2050.”

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(5) 珍妮弗·霍华德:“海岸和海洋生态系统面临风暴、海平面上升、海岸空间挤压等威胁,急需成规模的养护行动。重要的是,要制定全面的战略,既要在地方层面保护受威胁最大的社区,又要在国际层面制定更综合全面的政策。”

Jennifer Howard:” Coastal and marine ecosystems are confronted with threats of storms, sea level rise, coastal squeeze etc., thus in need of conservation at scale. It’s important to come up with comprehensive strategies that add value at both a local level to protect communities that are the most threatened, and also at an international level with comprehensive policies.”

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学术

(1) [划区管理] 蓝色水域海洋保护区的生态响应

[Area-based Management] Ecological responses to blue water MPAs

本研究首次全面评估了太平洋偏远岛屿海洋国家纪念地中上层海洋保护区对渔业生产和生态反应的影响。海洋保护区(MPA)对渔获物的物种多样性、长度和营养级没有明显的因果关联,可能是由于该MPA成立时间不长、规模太小、也不包含特定生命史阶段的关键生境、同时受到轻度捕捞或经历过 “沿线捕鱼”。本研究还评估了保护关切物种的标准化捕获率和MPA内外捕获量的平均营养级。捕鱼努力的转移导致了多物种冲突。MPA保护了一些兼捕热点区和高危物种的兼捕与目标渔获量比率的热点区,但这些区域对其他物种可能是冷点区。渔获物的平均营养级在MPA周围显著提高,可能是由于浅层特征的聚集效应和MPA内捕捞压力一直较轻。

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(2) [划区管理] 海洋保护区规划中纳入气候变化适应

[Area-based Management] Incorporating climate change adaptation into marine protected area planning

气候变化适应战略很少被纳入海洋保护区设计和管理计划。研究发现MPA规划中考虑气候变化适应的实例其中有82%来自热带珊瑚礁,这突出了对其他生态系统和生境类型的相关研究的需求。有些实例在规划阶段对适应战略的建议会大相径庭,有的只关注气候避难所,有的旨在对涵盖所有预期气候变化影响的区域进行代表性保护。规划中对MPA管理的建议则更加一致并侧重于适应性管理方法。研究表明,评估不同适应战略的科学研究的缺乏和当前治理结构的缺陷是在气候变化适应中两个主要的障碍。

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(3) [生态修复] 恢复或重置:生态修复的未来途径

[Ecological Restoration] Restore or Redefine: Future Trajectories for Restoration

生态修复历来是扭转生境丧失和功能恢复的一个关键工具,但在未来气候条件下,这在多大程度上是足够的还不确定。现在新兴的基因技术为生态修复提供了主动将目标物种的适应性与预测的未来环境条件相匹配的能力,这为提高退化和受威胁生境对未来压力的抵抗力提供了可能。因此,面对环境和气候变化,选择恢复到历史基线还是应对未来情景,仍然是影响恢复成功的关键决策。

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(4) [蓝色经济] 印度尼西亚鲨鱼和鳐鱼旅游的经济价值及其在保护成果中的作用

[Blue Economy] The Economic Value of Shark and Ray Tourism in Indonesia and Its Role in Delivering Conservation Outcomes

印尼高价值的海洋旅游业可以为包括鲨鱼在内的海洋生态系统和物种的保护和可持续管理创造经济激励。本研究估计了印尼鲨鱼和鳐鱼旅游业的经济价值,并探讨了游客的偏好和当地社区对旅游业的看法,以了解该行业在鲨鱼和鳐鱼保护方面的当前和未来潜在的作用。研究表明鲨鱼和鳐鱼旅游的绝对经济价值与其提供保护激励的作用并不匹配。捕鲨者并不能从鲨鱼和鳐鱼旅游中获得直接的经济利益,由于过度捕捞是鲨鱼种群的主要威胁,如果不与这些利益相关者接触并给予适当的激励,将不利于印尼鲨鱼保护工作的成功。如果由于保护行动不足,鲨鱼数量继续下降,到2027年,旅游业每年因鲨鱼和鳐鱼旅游造成的经济损失可能超过1.21亿美元,并对物种、海洋生态系统、渔业和人类造成有害影响。

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(5) [气候·海洋] 飓风加速海岸生态系统中溶解有机碳循环

[Climate ·Ocean] Hurricanes Accelerate Dissolved Organic Carbon Cycling in Coastal Ecosystems

热带风暴和飓风等极端天气事件向河口和沿海海洋输送了大量的淡水(雨水和河流排放)和相关的溶解性有机碳(DOC),影响了水质和碳预算。飓风哈维在2017年产生了前所未有的洪水事件,淹没了高度城市化和工业化的休斯顿/加尔维斯顿地区(美国德克萨斯州)。在一周内,与风暴相关的洪水向加尔维斯顿湾和墨西哥湾大陆架输送了87±18 Gg的陆源性溶解有机碳(tDOC)。在洪泛平原排放后的1个月内,70%的tDOC发生了生物矿化。tDOC的高去除效率与能够降解多种溶解有机物的多样化微生物群落有关,并表明飓风引起的洪水事件影响了河口流域和沿岸海域的二氧化碳净交换和养分预算。

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(6) [生物多样性] 大隐隐于“市”:鱼形目幼虫是低纬度海洋生态系统中鱼类生物多样性的重要贡献者

[Biodiversity] Hiding in Plain Sight: Elopomorph Larvae Are Important Contributors to Fish Biodiversity in a Low-Latitude Oceanic Ecosystem

在近岸和大洋生境中,鱼形目鱼的幼体是鱼类多样性的一个隐性组成部分。然而,识别这些钩吻鱼对阐明一个地区的物种丰富度是很重要的。自2010年 “深水地平线 “漏油事件以来,在墨西哥湾北部表层、中层和上深层的近海鱼类中进行采样,获得了8989个可识别的钩吻鱼幼体或变异幼体标本,共118个分类群,代表了83个公认的既定物种,另外还有35个独特的钩吻鱼形态类型尚未与已知的描述物种相联系。在近海地区采集的鱼类中,钩吻鱼占总物种丰富度的13%左右。

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其它资料

[划区管理] 在黄海建立海洋保护区网络

[Area-based Management] Building a Network of MPAs in the Yellow Sea

文章/Article

视频/Video


[海洋科技] 国家海洋设施技术路线图发布

[Marine Technology] National Marine Facilities Technology Road Map published

文件/Document


[蓝色经济] 为自然保护地球的30%:成本、效益和经济影响

[Blue Economy] Protecting 30% of the planet for nature: costs, benefits and economic implications

文件/Document


[蓝色经济] 评估海洋空间规划对蓝色经济产业惠益

[Blue Economy] Evaluating the benefits of Maritime Spatial Planning to blue economy sectors

文件/Document


活动

>>预告 – 网络研讨会

2020年7月27日 英联邦蓝色宪章项目 | 开启红树林生态系统财富

2020.07.27 Commonwealth Blue Charter | Unlocking the Wealth of Mangrove Ecosystems

详情/Detail


2020年7月28日 中国在拯救原始南大洋行动中的角色:创建海洋保护区网络

2020.07.28 China’s Role in Saving the Wild Southern Ocean: Creating a Network of Marine Protected Areas

详情/Detail


2020年7月29日 捕鱼场:英联邦可持续水产发展战略

2020.07.29 The Fishing Fields: Sustainable Aquaculture Development Strategies for the Commonwealth

详情/Detail


2020年7月29日 世界自然保护联盟绿色清单 | 实现自然养护成功

2020.07.29 IUCN Green List | Achieving success in nature conservation

详情/Detail


2020年7月29日 海产品新行政令对扩大美国可持续海产品生产意味着什么?

2020.07.29 What the New Executive Order on Seafood Means for Expanding Sustainable U.S. Seafood Production

详情/Detail


2020年7月30日 从区域到全球-利用管理效率信息来改善全球自然保护目标和行动

2020.07.30 From local to global – the use of management effectiveness information to improve global targets and actions for conservation of nature 

详情/Detail


>>其他

本简报两周更新一期,往期内容可以查看这里。 如果您在简报内容或形式上有任何意见或建议,欢迎发邮件至ocean@ghub.org告诉我们,也欢迎您将《蓝色脉搏》推荐给同事和朋友

我们正在跟踪新冠疫情导致的海洋相关国际会议安排的变动,最新的信息在这里


*题图:Lance Morgan, President at Marine Conservation Institute | 制。