Issue 24 | Blue Pulse: Marine Conservation Bulletin

日期:

In this issue, we reflect on the importance of the High Seas Biodiversity Agreement (BBNJ) through the lens of zigzagging decision makings of Regional Fisheries Management Organizations of Tuna. In the meanwhile, there is a focus on scientific analyses on effectiveness of Marine Protected Areas, as area-based management tools for high seas conservation.

导语 Introduction

关键点一

继去年美洲间热带金枪鱼委员会(IATTC)拖延了管理措施的决策后,今年印度洋金枪鱼委员会(IOTC)的支持黄鳍金枪鱼的种群重建的捕捞量削减提案也被搁置。虽然线上会议做决策确实存在实际困难,但是金枪鱼RFMO拒绝采纳自己的科学委员会的建议也不是第一次了。这就更加突显出公海生物多样性协定(BBNJ)的重要性:代表人类命运共同体来给区域组织的“赛先生们”撑腰。

Highlight 1

After the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) delayed a decision on management measures last year, this year the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission's (IOTC) catch reduction proposal to support stock rebuilding of yellowfin tuna has also been shelved. While it is true that there are practical difficulties in making decisions at online meetings, it is not the first time that the Tuna RFMO has refused to adopt the recommendations of its own scientific committee. This highlights the importance of the High Seas Biodiversity Agreement (BBNJ) even more: to back up the scientific committees on behalf of the community of human destiny.

关键点二

本期的学术部分再次聚焦海洋保护区的效益,其中包括全球尺度的情景分析和基于实证的现状讨论。其中值得注意的是《自然》杂志发布的识别值得严格保护海域的论文。这篇论文作者中有几位也参与2018年评估爱知目标名义和实际实现情况的论文的撰写。那篇文章对有名无实的、严格保护和允许多种利用的保护区进行了区别审视。该篇文章从气候、渔业和生多的三重效益来展望未来严格保护的海洋保护区的发展需要。

Highlight 2

The academic section of this issue again focuses on the benefits of marine protected areas. The contents include global-scale scenario analysis and an empirically based discussion of the current situation. Notable among these is the paper published in Nature on identifying marine areas worthy of strict protection. Several of the authors of this paper were also involved in the 2018 paper that assessed the nominal and actual achievement of the Aichi ocean target. That paper assessed the MPAs that lack implementation, those being strictly protected, and those that allow multiple uses separately. The paper looks at the need for future development of strictly MPAs to achieve the triple benefits of climate, fisheries and biodiversity.


时讯 News

图片
一名志愿潜水员在海南岛附近的亚热带水域检查移植珊瑚的生长情况
Yang Guanyu / Alamy 制

(1)2021年3月12日,《中华人民共和国国民经济和社会发展第十四个五年规划和2035年远景目标纲要》公布。其中第三十三章为“积极拓展海洋经济发展空间”,包括三节:第一节建设现代海洋产业体系、第二节打造可持续海洋生态环境、第三节深度参与全球海洋治理。

On March 12, 2021, the 14th Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development of the People's Republic of China and the Outline of Vision 2035 was announced. Chapter 33 is 'actively expanding the development space of marine economy', including three sections: the first section is to build a modern marine industry system, the second section is to create a sustainable marine ecological environment, and the third section is to participate deeply in global ocean governance.

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(2)印度尼西亚海洋事务和渔业部全新部署了两艘巡逻船,以打击在其水域的非法、未报告和无管制(IUU)捕捞活动。

The Maritime Affairs and Fisheries Ministry of Indonesia has launched two new patrol ships to fight against illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing activities in its waters.

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(3)3月12日印度洋金枪鱼委员会(IOTC)特别会议上,IOTC成员国未能就提案“对区域黄鳍金枪鱼的捕获量实施比2014年减少20%的措施”达成一致意见。

In a special session of the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC) on 12 March, IOTC member-states failed to agree on a proposal that would have implemented a 20 percent cut in regional yellowfin tuna catches compared to 2014 levels.

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(4)欧洲议会已投票赞成建立新的渔业监控体系,这可能为改革过去10年实施的主要渔业法规铺平了道路。

The European Parliament has voted in favor of a new fisheries control system that could pave the way for reforms of key fishing regulations in place for the last 10 years.

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(5)中国农业农村部渔业渔政管理局组织对全国180家远洋渔业企业2020年履约情况进行评估,现就履约评估结果予以公示,公示时间为2021年3月15日至3月21日。

The Fisheries and Fishery Administration of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China organized an assessment of the compliance of 180 offshore fishing enterprises in 2020, and the results of the compliance assessment are now publicized from March 15 to March 21, 2021.

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观点 Perspectives

图片
非法捕鱼:拉丁美洲海洋保护区的重大威胁
Mongabay 制

(1) Michelle Carrere:“一项联合调查发现,在智利、哥伦比亚、厄瓜多尔以及墨西哥的海洋保护区内,有涉嫌非法捕鱼的活动。许多拉丁美洲海洋保护区没监管力度不够,且缺乏足够的预算来防止非法捕鱼,在某些情况下,甚至缺乏一个像样的管理计划去确定监测策略。”

Michelle Carrere:" An investigative collaboration revealed suspected illegal fishing activities in marine protected areas in Chile, Colombia, Ecuador as well as Mexico.
Many Latin American marine protected areas do not have enough surveillance or budget to prevent these crimes, and in some cases lack even a management plan defining a monitoring strategy."

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(2)焦念志:“海洋碳汇是实现‘碳中和’的重要途径。预计汇的增加将为‘碳中和’战略提供科技支撑。”

Jiao Nianzhi:" Ocean carbon sink is an important way to achieve 'carbon neutrality'. The expected increase in sinks are expected to provide scientific and technological support for the 'carbon neutral' strategy."

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(3)Katy Askew:“印度洋的黄鳍金枪鱼被过度捕捞,到2026年将‘走向崩溃’。避免这种情况的唯一办法是大幅(例如20%)减少捕捞量。”

Katy Askew;" Yellowfin tuna in the Indian Ocean is overfished and 'heading for collapse' by 2026. The only way to avert this situation is a significant (e.g. 20%) reduction in catch."

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(4)Tony Byers:“多样性、公平性、包容性等特点可以使海产品行业不断做大做强。通过多样性和包容性原则的实施,企业人员流动性降低,市场份额增长,收益更加稳健。”

Tony Byers:" Diversity, equity, inclusion can lead seafood industry to greater success. Businesses are seeing less turnover, growth in market share, and more robust earnings through the implementation of diversity and inclusion."

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(5)Amílcar Guzmán Valladares and Viviana Luján Gallegos:“人们对海洋退化的认识和了解越来越多。这已转化为越来越多的兴趣和承诺,即为海洋保护区(MPA)提供长期资金,而且数额大于旅游业收入等地方财政资金流。 目前,全球45%以上的保护信托基金(CTF)为MPA管理提供了资金,约26%的CTF为建立新的MPA注资,CTF为MPA提供了长期可持续的资金流。”

 Amílcar Guzmán Valladares and Viviana Luján Gallegos:" There is increasing visibility and awareness of marine degradation. That has translated into growing interest and commitments to implement mechanisms that generate longer-term funding to Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), and in larger amounts than local finance streams such as tourism-related fees. Currently 45% of existing Conservation Trust Fund (CTFs) in the world have provided funding for MPA management, and around 26% of them have funded the creation of new MPAs, providing a sustainable stream of funding over the long term."

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解读 Interpretations

图片
一种像蒲公英一样的虹吸动物,它长长的附属物有助于将动物固定在海底
NOAA 制

(1)海洋采矿:一项危及人类和地球的提案

国际海底管理局(International Seabed Authority)最早可能在今年批准关于允许在国际水域进行海洋采矿的法规。但是,一些科学家、国家政府和社区领袖最近却认为匆忙开始海洋采矿的做法是不负责任的,并一致呼吁暂时禁止这项计划。暂时禁止海底采矿可以让我们有机会收集所需数据,从而判断是否可以在不造成任何不可逆转的损害的前提下授权进行海底采矿。

Regulations to allow ocean mining in international waters could be approved as early as this year by the International Seabed Authority. But scientists, countries and community leaders have recently suggested this sprint to mine the ocean is irresponsible and have been aligning behind calls for a moratorium. A moratorium would give us the opportunity to collect the data we need to determine whether seabed mining can be authorized without causing irreversible harm.

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(2)一份“众包”报告全面呈现中国珊瑚礁保护现状

中国珊瑚礁研究与监测起步较晚,而随着近年白化频发和天敌肆虐,保护行动正亟待升级。来自不同背景的珊瑚礁监测保护机构和个人在2018年底联合成立了中国太平洋学会珊瑚礁分会,随后整合多家机构多年来的研究,在2020年9月发布了第一份整体呈现中国珊瑚礁分布和生存现状的报告——《中国珊瑚礁状况报告2019》。这份非官方主导编写发布的报告,虽然资料收集止于2018年,却也如实呈现了当前中国珊瑚礁喜忧参半的现状。

China's coral reef research and monitoring started late, and with frequent bleaching and natural predator infestation in recent years, conservation actions are in urgent need of upgrading. In late 2018, various bodies and individuals formed a coral reef branch under the Pacific Society of China. Then, in September last year, this branch published the 2019 China Coral Report on the distribution and condition of the country’s coral reefs. The review was not produced by an official body, and was based on disparate data and research only up to 2018. Nonetheless, it is the broadest and clearest window onto the condition of China’s reefs so far produced.

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(3)后疫情时代海洋保护区的挑战与应对方式

根据全球15个海洋保护养护地(MPCA)案例研究,发现几个因素决定了MPCA是否容易受到大流行病的影响,包括MPCA的资金可持续性,以及管理和传播工作的架构等。研究发现技术应用在今后的MPCA管理中的作用越来越大。

We collected 15 Marine Protected Conservation Area (MPCA) case studies from across the globe to see how COVID has impacted their current work. We discovered that there were several factors that dictated whether a site was particularly vulnerable or resilient to the pandemic. These included whether the site had sustainable financing, and how its management and communications were structured, among other factors. Notably, we found an increasing role for emerging and applied technologies in MPCA management going forward.

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(4)"十四五"规划和"十三五"规划“海洋专章”内容比照

中国海洋发展使命从“壮大海洋经济、加强海洋资源环境保护”等发展为“建设现代海洋产业体系、可持续建设生态环境、深度参与全球海洋治理”。

China's ocean development mission is developed further from 'expand ocean economy, strengthen marine resources and environment protection' to 'construct modern marine sectors system, sustainably construct ecological environment, deeply participate in global ocean governance'.

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学术 Academics

(1)【海洋宏观】为生物多样性、粮食和气候保护全球海洋

[Ocean in general] Protecting the global ocean for biodiversity, food and climate

研究发现大幅加强海洋保护可以带来三重效益,即保护生物多样性、提高渔业产量和确保因人类活动而面临风险的海洋碳储量。研究结果表明,大多数沿海国家的优先保护区域可以为实现生物多样性保护、食物供应和碳储存这三个目标做出巨大贡献。研究开发了一个保护规划框架,以确定高度保护的海洋保护区的优先级,可以帮助为国家海洋空间计划、全球海洋养护、粮食安全和气候行动目标提供信息。

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(2)【气候·海洋】海洋保护区不能防止温带过渡区海洋热浪引起的鱼类群落结构变化

[Climate · Ocean] Marine protected areas do not prevent marine heatwave-induced fish community structure changes in a temperate transition zone

在海洋热浪期间,暖水亲和物种的丰度、生物量、多样性和补充量与往年相比显著增加,但冷水亲和物种并没有出现相应的下降。海洋保护区内的鱼类群落没有受到这些群落变化的影响。这一结果可能是由于对环境驱动因素的群落响应负有最大责任的特定物种不是渔业目标。在气候变化中致力于保护生物多样性的资源管理者需要考虑更多的管理工具和战略,并与保护区相结合,以减轻气候变暖对海洋群落的影响。

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(3)【划区管理】分析和讨论最近28个海洋保护区治理案例研究:在等级制度阴影之下多中心治理的挑战

[Area-based management] Analysis and discussion of 28 recent marine protected area governance (MPAG) case studies: Challenges of decentralization in the shadow of hierarchy

本文通过15个国家的28个案例研究分析了海洋保护区的治理情况,讨论了多中心治理概念的局限性。协同进化治理从群体生态学的角度来分析激励机制如何通过其功能整合来实现共同进化,以及社会和生态系统如何通过人类影响和生态服务的反馈机制来实现共同进化。借鉴更广泛的多层次治理的概念,协同进化治理被认为可以提供治理方法之间的协同作用。研究表明,激励机制以一种类似于协同效应的方式进行协同作用,使它们在功能上得到了整合,成为结合治理方法的一种手段。

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(4)【划区管理】评估部分保护的海洋区域的社会生态效益

[Area-based management] Evaluating the social and ecological effectiveness of partially protected marine areas

研究发现部分保护区相对于开放利用区没有社会或生态效益。部分保护区的鱼类、无脊椎动物和藻类并不比开放区多;沿海用户对其了解不多;不比开放区更有吸引力;也不被认为比开放区有更好的海洋生物。研究认为,部分保护区在海洋保护中扮演了类似红鲱鱼在海洋中的角色,与开放区域相比,它们消耗了稀缺的保护资源,却很少或根本没有社会或生态效益。相比之下,完全保护区拥有更多的鱼类物种和生物量,并得到了公众的理解、支持和重视。通过将部分保护区提升到更高的保护水平,包括将其转化为完全保护区,可以改善养护成果。

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(5)【海洋生物】对移动中的物种进行海洋规划能事半功倍

[Ocean biology] Ocean planning for species on the move provides substantial benefits and requires few trade-offs

研究表明,为物种未来重新分布进行提前规划可以大大减少气候变化带来的风险,只需额外划出很小的区域,且与当前海洋计划的有效性几乎没有冲突。管理区网络是一个关键战略。虽然气候变化将严重扰乱许多人类活动,但研究发现主动积极地规划长期海洋变化意义重大。

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(6)【海洋治理】与海洋有关的学习网络:为实现合作海洋治理而改变范式

[Ocean Governance] Marine-Related Learning Networks: Shifting the Paradigm Toward Collaborative Ocean Governance

研究结果表明,与海洋有关的学习网络是根据知识和行动的差距以及网络成员的具体需求而形成的,它们的功能是为政策提供信息和改善海洋管理。它们的成功取决于一些属性,如具有明确的目的,建立信任和关系,强调公平参与,以及支持明确和持续的领导。与海洋有关的学习网络具有得天独厚的优势,可以作为催化剂和渠道,通过包容和协作应对正在发生和新出现的海洋问题,建设能力和制定解决方案,以满足治理需求。因此,有必要更广泛地了解这些网络日益重要的意义及其采用的有效做法。

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其他资料 Other resources

【气候·海洋】联合国教科文组织海洋世界遗产:全球蓝碳资产的监管者
[Climate · Ocean]UNESCO Marine World Heritage: Custodians of the globe's blue carbon assets
报告/Report


【海洋宏观】“自然保护培训”是一个提供来自大自然保护协会及伙伴组织的基于自然保护的培训素材的开放且免费的学习社区
[Ocean in general] ConservationTraining is an open and free learning community that offers conservation-based training materials from The Nature Conservancy and our partner organizations.
课程/Courses


【海洋生态】“艾伦珊瑚地图集”宣布三个新的绘图区域:中印度洋,大堡礁和托雷斯海峡,以及西澳大利亚
[Marine ecosystem] The Allen Coral Atlas announces three newly mapped regions: Central Indian Ocean, Great Barrier Reef & Torres Strait, and Western Australia.
专题网页/Feature page


【渔业管理】2025年实现可持续金枪鱼的承诺
[Fisheries management] 2025 Pledge towards Sustainable Tuna (25PST)
专题网页/Feature page


活动 Events

>>预告 Upcoming Events

2021年03月31日 网络研讨会 探寻2021年海产品的力量和美国海产品消费趋势
2021.03.31 Webinar Exploring the 2021 Power of Seafood and US Seafood Consumption Trends
详情/Detail


2021年04月09日 网络研讨会 以国家海洋保护区游客统计流程监管海洋保护区的使用
2021.04.09 Webinar Monitoring marine sanctuary usage with National Marine Sanctuary Visitor Counting Process
详情/Detail


2021年04月20日 网络研讨会 海洋社会科学网络:推进对人与海洋联系的理解
2021.04.20 Webinar The Marine Social Science Network: Promoting understanding of people's relationship with the sea
详情/Detail


2021年04月21日 网络研讨会 优质三文鱼与循环水产养殖系统发展的循环产业模式探讨
2021.04.21 Webinar Quality Salmon and the Circular Industry Model of Recirculating Aquaculture System Development

详情/Detail

>>其他 Others

本快讯两周更新一期,往期内容可以查看这里。如果您在快讯内容或形式上有任何意见或建议,欢迎发邮件至ocean@ghub.org告诉我们,也欢迎您将《蓝色脉搏》推荐给同事和朋友

我们正在跟踪新冠疫情导致的海洋相关国际会议安排的变动,最新的信息在这里


题图:一名志愿潜水员在海南岛附近的亚热带水域检查移植珊瑚的生长情况,Yang Guanyu / Alamy | 制。